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External Validity Reconsidered

Diana C. Mutz

in Population-Based Survey Experiments

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144511
eISBN:
9781400840489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144511.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter talks about the significance of generalizability. Experimentalists often go to great lengths to argue that student or other convenience samples are not problematic in terms of external ... More


Methodological Alternatives and Supplements to Random Assignment

Patrick Dattalo

in Strategies to Approximate Random Sampling and Assignment

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195378351
eISBN:
9780199864645
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378351.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter begins with a discussion of internal validity and assignment bias. Next, the rationale for, and the limitations of, RA as a way to maximize internal validity and minimize assignment are ... More


Population-Based Survey Experiments

Diana C. Mutz

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144511
eISBN:
9781400840489
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144511.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

Population-based survey experiments have become an invaluable tool for social scientists struggling to generalize laboratory-based results, and for survey researchers besieged by uncertainties about ... More


Appraising the Evidence

James C. Raines

in Evidence-Based Practice in School Mental Health

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195366266
eISBN:
9780199864027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366266.003.0005
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families, Research and Evaluation

There are five types of studies that result from the five types of questions introduced in Chapter 3. First, effectiveness studies cover both prevention and intervention questions. They include both ... More


Empirical Research on Voluntarism as an Artifact-Independent Variable

Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0037
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter presents some research findings pertaining to the threat to internal validity of volunteer biases in several areas.


Validity and Validation

Catherine S. Taylor

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199791040
eISBN:
9780190256074
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199791040.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This book is an introduction to validity theory and to the methods used to obtain evidence for the validity of research and assessment results. The book pulls together the best thinking from ... More


Furthering Dissemination and Implementation Research: The Need for More Attention to External Validity

Lawrence W. Green and Mona Nasser

in Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health: Translating Science to Practice

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780190683214
eISBN:
9780190683245
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190683214.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter raises questions about the reliability of much “evidence-based practice” disseminated from the original studies and systematic reviews of those studies, insofar as they were often ... More


Introduction

Richard McCleary, David McDowall, and Bradley J. Bartos

in Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190661557
eISBN:
9780190661595
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190661557.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

Chapter 1 introduces three categories of time series designs: descriptive, correlational, and interrupted time series designs. The evolution from a two-validity system to a four-validity system ... More


. . The Volunteer Subject 1

Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter includes a discussion of how the use of volunteer subjects in research can affect causal inferences and generalizations, with additional emphasis on several strategies for anticipating ... More


Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments

Richard McCleary, David McDowall, and Bradley Bartos

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780190661557
eISBN:
9780190661595
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190661557.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

Design and Analysis of Time Series Experiments develops a comprehensive set of models and methods for drawing causal inferences from time series. Example analyses of social, behavioral, and ... More


Critical appraisal of a randomized trial of a preventive agent

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: a randomized clinical trial entitled ‘Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research ... More


Causal Impact: From Exposures to Interventions

Daniel Westreich

in Epidemiology by Design: A Causal Approach to the Health Sciences

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780190665760
eISBN:
9780190665791
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190665760.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

In Chapter 9, the author discusses the causal impact framework, an approach to epidemiologic methods that can be used to move from internally valid estimates to externally valid estimates to valid ... More


Beyond Scandinavia: Washington Consensus to Market Corruption

Avner Offer and Gabriel Söderberg

in The Nobel Factor: The Prize in Economics, Social Democracy, and the Market Turn

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691196312
eISBN:
9781400883417
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691196312.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter reveals that Scandinavia was but a sideshow in a larger plot in which market-liberal advocates strove to capture the command of policy worldwide with the ‘Washington Consensus’. Their ... More


Microfinance RCTs in Development: Miracle or Mirage?

Florent Bédécarrats, Isabelle Guérin, and François Roubaud

in Randomized Control Trials in the Field of Development: A Critical Perspective

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198865360
eISBN:
9780191898266
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198865360.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Microcredit has long stood as a flagship topic for RCTs in development, starting with the publication of a special issue in a leading economics journal on six RCTs conducted in different world ... More


Capturing “Trial-to-Trial” Variations in Human Brain Activity: From Laboratory to Real World

Akaysha C. Tang, Matthew T. Sutherland, and Zhen Yang

in The Dynamic Brain: An Exploration of Neuronal Variability and Its Functional Significance

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195393798
eISBN:
9780199897049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393798.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

To understand cognition and emotion in the real world, it is critical to investigate the phenomena of interest within the rich context of moment-to-moment variations in the real world, which we ... More


Impact Evaluation

Martin Ravallion

in The Economics of Poverty: History, Measurement, and Policy

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780190212766
eISBN:
9780190212803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190212766.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

There has been an expansion of analytic effort by economists and others to improve knowledge about the effectiveness of both specific antipoverty policies and the distributional implications of a ... More


Large-Scale Evaluations of Child Care as a Context for Development: Implications for Research and Practice

Margaret Burchinal

in The Culture of Child Care: Attachment, Peers, and Quality in Diverse Communities

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780190218089
eISBN:
9780190218102
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190218089.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The federal and state governments are investing heavily in providing public early child care and education for young children, in part based on an extensive research literature. Due to the high ... More


Causation and Causal Claims

Peter Miksza and Kenneth Elpus

in Design and Analysis for Quantitative Research in Music Education

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199391905
eISBN:
9780199391943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199391905.003.0007
Subject:
Music, Theory, Analysis, Composition, Performing Practice/Studies

This chapter explores the philosophy of science surrounding warrants for causal claims, how researchers can use quantitative data to create causal knowledge, and how to evaluate the validity of ... More


Methodological Issues

K. Warner Schaie

in Developmental Influences on Adult Intelligence: The Seattle Longitudinal Study

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780195386134
eISBN:
9780190255657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780195386134.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter summarizes the methodological issues that have informed the Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS), first launched in 1956 to investigate various aspects of intellectual development from early ... More


Internal and External Validity in Ethical Reasoning

James Wilson

in Philosophy for Public Health and Public Policy: Beyond the Neglectful State

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780192844057
eISBN:
9780191926785
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192844057.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

A particular approach to ethical reasoning has come to dominate much Anglo-American philosophy, one which assumes that the most rigorous method is to proceed by analysis of thought experiments. In ... More


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