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The Great Gatsby and the Great War Army: Ethnic Egalitarianism, Intelligence Testing, the New Man, and the Charity Girl

Keith Gandal

in The Gun and the Pen: Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner and the Fiction of Mobilization

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195338911
eISBN:
9780199867127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195338911.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory, American, 20th Century Literature

This chapter argues that the plot and characters of Fitzgerald's famous novel can be illuminated with reference to historical events and figures connected to the mobilization. Gatsby himself, a poor ... More


The Gun and the Pen: Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner and the Fiction of Mobilization

Keith Gandal

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195338911
eISBN:
9780199867127
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195338911.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory, American, 20th Century Literature

This book demonstrates that Hemingway, Fitzgerald, and Faulkner were motivated, in their famous postwar books, not by their experiences of the horrors of the war but rather by their failure to have ... More


Decoupling Intelligence from Race

Carl N. Degler

in In Search of Human Nature: The Decline and Revival of Darwinism in American Social Thought

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195077070
eISBN:
9780199853991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195077070.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

This chapter examines the validity of using intelligence tests to measure the quality of behavior of human beings. It cites the findings of Lothrop Stoddard's 1922 study on the U.S. Army which ... More


The Sound and the Fury and Military Rejects: The Feebleminded and the Postmobilization Erotic Triangle

Keith Gandal

in The Gun and the Pen: Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner and the Fiction of Mobilization

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195338911
eISBN:
9780199867127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195338911.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory, American, 20th Century Literature

This chapter takes up Faulkner's famous novel The Sound and the Fury. Again missing a crucial connection to the mobilization, critics have failed to understand Benjy as having been shaped by the ... More


Rethinking Post–World War I Classics: Recovering the Historical Context of the Mobilization

Keith Gandal

in The Gun and the Pen: Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner and the Fiction of Mobilization

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195338911
eISBN:
9780199867127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195338911.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory, American, 20th Century Literature

This chapter lays out the book's argument and is divided into three parts. The first part introduces the literary-historical thesis that American modernist fiction by Fitzgerald, Hemingway, and ... More


Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

John Richardson

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Howard Andrew Knox (1885–1949) served as assistant surgeon at Ellis Island during the 1910s, administering a range of verbal and nonverbal tests to determine the mental capacity of potential ... More


Abuses and Misuses of Intelligence Tests: Facts and Misconceptions

Mark Benisz, John O. Willis, and Ron Dumont

in Pseudoscience: The Conspiracy Against Science

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780262037426
eISBN:
9780262344814
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262037426.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Although the term IQ is widely used in popular culture, the true definition of intelligence and how it is measured is misunderstood. We provide an overview of how the construct of intelligence and ... More


The Lacunae of Loss? Aging and the Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities

Patrick Rabbitt and Mike Anderson

in Lifespan Cognition: Mechanisms of Change

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195169539
eISBN:
9780199847204
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169539.003.0023
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines the effect of aging on cognitive abilities and asks whether all cognitive abilities show evidence of decline or whether some abilities are relatively spared. Declines in ... More


Rethinking Intelligence

David A. Varel

in The Lost Black Scholar: Resurrecting Allison Davis in American Social Thought

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226534886
eISBN:
9780226534916
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226534916.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

The eighth chapter evaluates Davis’s work on intelligence-testing, which marked the culmination of his social thought and the height of his social influence. In 1948, Harvard invited Davis to give ... More


Developing Performance Scales

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on subsequent attempts to develop performance scales, many of which incorporated tests originally developed by Howard Andrew Knox and his colleagues to estimate mental deficiency ... More


Borrowing the Ellis Island Tests

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on the wider use of intelligence tests throughout the 1920s and 1930s until they were generally superseded by David Wechsler’s scales from 1939 onward. From May 1912 to May 1916, ... More


An Appraisal

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This concluding chapter considers why Howard Andrew Knox’s work at Ellis Island in New York has been neglected and seeks to reinstate him as a key figure in the history of intelligence testing. From ... More


What do Performance Tests Measure?

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter considers what performance tests actually measure in light of current psychological research. It was Howard Andrew Knox who first used the term “performance test” in his own writings in ... More


Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Reasoning Ability

Klaus Oberauer, Heinz-Martin Süß, Oliver Wilhelm, and Nicolas Sander

in Variation in Working Memory

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195168648
eISBN:
9780199847297
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168648.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses how a substantial number of studies have shown that working memory capacity (WMC) is the best single predictor identified so far of reasoning ability as measured by ... More


The Measurement of Intelligence

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on attempts to measure intelligence during the late nineteenth century. Developments in the measurement of intelligence came at a time when researchers were seeking to ... More


Does it matter? The scientific and political impact of Burt's work

N. J. Mackintosh

in Cyril Burt: Fraud or Framed?

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523369
eISBN:
9780191688898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523369.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Burt's major theoretical contribution to psychology was surely his work on the development of factor analysis. Unquestionably, it was Burt who was the first to see that the actual pattern of ... More


Individual differences and working memory span

Alan Baddeley

in Working Memory, Thought, and Action

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198528012
eISBN:
9780191689505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528012.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

A historical overview of the psychometric tradition is first discussed in this chapter. The author asserts that the psychometric industry has had a considerable amount of practical success in ... More


Practical Issues in Intelligence Testing

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter explores the various practical issues in intelligence testing that Howard Andrew Knox and his colleagues encountered while they were administering performance tests to mentally deficient ... More


Gentlemen’s Disagreement: Alfred Kinsey, Lewis Terman, and the Sexual Politics of Smart Men

Peter Hegarty

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226024448
eISBN:
9780226024615
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226024615.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

What is the relationship between intelligence and sex? In recent decades, studies of the controversial histories of both intelligence testing and human sexuality in the United States have been ... More


Cortex Envy: Bringing Up Baby Einstein

Mark Dery

in I Must Not Think Bad Thoughts: Drive-by Essays on American Dread, American Dreams

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816677733
eISBN:
9781452948324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816677733.003.0033
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter examines the hidden agendas of IQ tests by sharing personal experience with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale test, third edition (WAIS-III). The chapter considers cortex envy—the ... More


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