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Transportation, Communication, Information:: Mass and Speed

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Private transportation was transformed by mass ownership of automobiles while long-distance public transport benefited from new high-speed trains and from affordable flying. Freight transportation ... More


Invention

Leslie Berlin

in The Man behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195163438
eISBN:
9780199788569
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195163438.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on Noyce's capacity for innovation and his development of the integrated circuit. The early years of Fairchild Semiconductor were also a most intellectually fertile time for ... More


A Strange Little Upstart

Leslie Berlin

in The Man behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195163438
eISBN:
9780199788569
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195163438.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on Robert Noyce's unconventional management approach at Fairchild Semiconductor. In the mid-1960s, Fairchild Semiconductor was not a typical semiconductor company. Andy Grove, ... More


Semiconductor Detector Systems

Helmuth Spieler

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527848
eISBN:
9780191713248
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527848.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Semiconductor sensors patterned at the micron scale combined with custom-designed integrated circuits have revolutionized semiconductor radiation detector systems. Designs covering many square meters ... More


The Computer Industry

Vernon W. Ruttan

in Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?: Military Procurement and Technology Development

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195188042
eISBN:
9780199783410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195188047.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The first all-purpose digital computer, completed in 1946, was developed by John W. Mauchly and J. Prosper Eckert, and associates at the University of Pennsylvania’s Moore School of Electrical ... More


Silicon, Silicon, and yet more Silicon

John Orton

in The Story of Semiconductors

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199559107
eISBN:
9780191712975
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559107.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter describes the establishment of silicon as the dominant semiconductor in modern electronics. Not only was it the preferred material for the manufacture of integrated circuits, but also ... More


The Man behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley

Leslie Berlin

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195163438
eISBN:
9780199788569
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195163438.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This book presents the life and times of Robert Noyce, the driving force behind the high-tech revolution. Noyce was the co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel and co-invented the integrated ... More


The Story of Semiconductors

John W. Orton

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199559107
eISBN:
9780191712975
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559107.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This book provides an overview of the fascinating spectrum of semiconductor physics, devices, and applications, presented from a historical perspective. It covers the subject from its inception in ... More


Introduction

Leslie Berlin

in The Man behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195163438
eISBN:
9780199788569
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195163438.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This introductory chapter presents a brief background on Robert Noyce. Noyce was an Iowa-born physicist, a minister's son, and a former champion diver, with a doctorate from MIT. He invented the ... More


From Maxwell to the Internet

Arlindo Oliveira

in The Digital Mind: How Science is Redefining Humanity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262036030
eISBN:
9780262338394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036030.003.0003
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

The chapter covers the developments in science that led to the digital computers of today. It all started with the understanding of electromagnetic phenomena, made possible by the discovery of ... More


State, Market, and Business Enterprise: Development of the Chinese Integrated Circuit Foundries

Yin Li

in China as an Innovation Nation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198753568
eISBN:
9780191815096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198753568.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation, International Business

China has the potential to become a strong competitor in the global integrated circuits (IC) industry due to the size of its market and support from the state. This chapter analyzes the models to ... More


Work Meets Life: Exploring the Integrative Study of Work in Living Systems

Robert Levin, Simon Laughlin, Christina De La Rocha, and Alan Blackwell (eds)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262014120
eISBN:
9780262265843
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262014120.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The work performed by living systems ranges from photosynthesis to prodigious feats of computation and organization. This book explores the relationships between work and the study of work across ... More


Computers

in Technology Change and the Rise of New Industries

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804783859
eISBN:
9780804784924
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804783859.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation

This chapter, which presents a detailed analysis of the discontinuities in computers, exploring the time lag between the identification of concepts and architectures that form the basis of ... More


Chips with Everything

David Segal

in Materials for the 21st Century

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198804079
eISBN:
9780191842320
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198804079.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Chapter 3 highlights the critical role materials have in the development of digital computers. It traces developments from the cat’s whisker to valves through to relays and transistors. Accounts are ... More


The Minifab, 1975–1990

Steven T. Usdin

in Engineering Communism: How Two Americans Spied for Stalin and Founded the Soviet Silicon Valley

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300108743
eISBN:
9780300127959
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300108743.003.0010
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on Berg's idea of minifab production. In the late 1970s, Berg came up with an idea for an invention that he believed could revolutionize microelectronics. The idea was to shrink ... More


Initiation

Steven T. Usdin

in Engineering Communism: How Two Americans Spied for Stalin and Founded the Soviet Silicon Valley

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300108743
eISBN:
9780300127959
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300108743.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses the founding of a city near Moscow to promote research and development of electronic technology. The chapter reveals that Khrushchev approved Staros and Joseph Berg's plan to ... More


IC Design: From Reverse Engineering to Innovation

Douglas B. Fuller

in Paper Tigers, Hidden Dragons: Firms and the Political Economy of China's Technological Development

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198777205
eISBN:
9780191822995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198777205.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Political Economy

This chapter evaluates various policies to upgrade China’s integrated circuit (IC) design capabilities including: the 908 Project, the 909 Project, National IC Design Bases, and Circulars No. 18 and ... More


IC Fabrication

Douglas B. Fuller

in Paper Tigers, Hidden Dragons: Firms and the Political Economy of China's Technological Development

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198777205
eISBN:
9780191822995
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198777205.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Political Economy

This chapter examines China’s industrial policy in integrated circuit fabrication and contrasts it with the hybrid and MNC firms that have set up fabs (fabrication facilities) in China. From the ... More


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