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Initial Conditions and State Political Competition

Daniel Berkowitz and Karen B. Clay

in The Evolution of a Nation: How Geography and Law Shaped the American States

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136042
eISBN:
9781400840540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136042.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter investigates the relationship between five initial conditions in states—temperature, precipitation, distance to oceans, distance to rivers and lakes, and colonial legal system—and ... More


The Mechanism

Daniel Berkowitz and Karen B. Clay

in The Evolution of a Nation: How Geography and Law Shaped the American States

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136042
eISBN:
9781400840540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136042.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter argues that initial conditions associated with trade and agriculture shaped the occupational distributions of early state elites who, in turn, influenced the subsequent evolution of ... More


Projection Operator Techniques

Heinz-Peter Breuer and Francesco Petruccione

in The Theory of Open Quantum Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199213900
eISBN:
9780191706349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213900.003.09
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter is devoted to the foundations and to the basic mathematical structure of the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems. It gives a survey of the Nakajima–Zwanzig projection operator ... More


Hard Scattering Formalism

John Campbell, Joey Huston, and Frank Krauss

in The Black Book of Quantum Chromodynamics: A Primer for the LHC Era

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199652747
eISBN:
9780191749148
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199652747.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The hard scattering formalism is introduced, starting from a physical picture based on the idea of equivalent quanta borrowed from QED, and the notion of characteristic times. Contact to the standard ... More


The emergence of functions through metonymy and language contact: Relationships between propositions

Zygmunt Frajzyngier and Marielle Butters

in The Emergence of Functions in Language

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198844297
eISBN:
9780191879838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198844297.003.0010
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, Language Families

A function can emerge through a metonymical extension from one function to another. A function may have several properties or features. These are mainly logical implications of a given function. Each ... More


Data assimilation in atmospheric chemistry and air quality

H. Elbern, E. Friese, L. Nieradzik, and J. Schwinger

in Advanced Data Assimilation for Geosciences: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches School of Physics: Special Issue, June 2012

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198723844
eISBN:
9780191791185
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198723844.003.0022
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter discusses data assimilation in atmospheric chemistry and air quality. Atmospheric chemistry dynamics and its simulations are significantly forced by emissions, in addition to other ... More


The Emergence of Functions in Language

Zygmunt Frajzyngier and Marielle Butters

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198844297
eISBN:
9780191879838
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198844297.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, Language Families

Why do grammatical systems of various languages express different meanings? Given that languages spoken in the same geographical area by people sharing similar social structure, occupations, and ... More


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