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Initial Conditions and State Political Competition

Daniel Berkowitz and Karen B. Clay

in The Evolution of a Nation: How Geography and Law Shaped the American States

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136042
eISBN:
9781400840540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136042.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter investigates the relationship between five initial conditions in states—temperature, precipitation, distance to oceans, distance to rivers and lakes, and colonial legal system—and ... More


The Mechanism

Daniel Berkowitz and Karen B. Clay

in The Evolution of a Nation: How Geography and Law Shaped the American States

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136042
eISBN:
9781400840540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136042.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter argues that initial conditions associated with trade and agriculture shaped the occupational distributions of early state elites who, in turn, influenced the subsequent evolution of ... More


The Nature of Explanation

Richard Swinburne

in The Existence of God

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199271672
eISBN:
9780191709357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199271672.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

There are two kinds of explanation of phenomena — scientific explanation in terms of laws of nature and initial conditions, or (on a preferable analysis of laws of nature) in terms of objects and ... More


The Constituency Effect

Gilles Saint‐Paul

in The Political Economy of Labour Market Institutions

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198293323
eISBN:
9780191596841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198293321.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter discusses the constituency effect. By this, it is meant that when a labour market institution is in place, it creates its own political support. This in turn generates status‐quo bias ... More


Modelling Low Income Transitions: Estimates from a Markov Model

Stephen P. Jenkins

in Changing Fortunes: Income Mobility and Poverty Dynamics in Britain

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199226436
eISBN:
9780191728457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199226436.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter looks at the similar issues as Chapter 9, but does so using a multivariate Markovian model of poverty transitions rather than hazard regression methods. The advantages and disadvantages ... More


Setting the stage

Graciana del Castillo

in Rebuilding War-Torn States: The Challenge of Post-Conflict Economic Reconstruction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199237739
eISBN:
9780191717239
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199237739.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, International

The objective of Chapters 11-15 is to facilitate preparation of a strategy for post-conflict economic reconstruction by including activities and policy guidelines that governments could adopt to ... More


State Courts

Daniel Berkowitz and Karen B. Clay

in The Evolution of a Nation: How Geography and Law Shaped the American States

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136042
eISBN:
9781400840540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136042.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter examines how a state's colonial legal system and levels of political competition in the state legislature shaped the independence of judges on the state high court. It argues that the ... More


The Butterfly Effect

David P. Feldman

in Chaos and Fractals: An Elementary Introduction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199566433
eISBN:
9780191774966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566433.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter explores the phenomenon of sensitive dependence on initial conditions (SDIC), also known as the butterfly effect. SDIC is one of the criteria in the definition of chaos which highlights ... More


Free and Creator of the Universe

Richard Swinburne

in The Coherence of Theism

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198240709
eISBN:
9780191598586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198240708.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Explanation is of two kinds—personal (in terms of persons, their intentions, capacities, and beliefs) and scientific (in terms of laws of nature and initial conditions). In explaining things in terms ... More


Laws: An Invariance-Based Account

James Woodward

in Laws of Nature

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198746775
eISBN:
9780191809057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746775.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, History of Philosophy

This chapter defends an invariance-based account of laws of nature. In constructing a physical theory one looks for a cut or contrast between laws and initial conditions such that (i) the laws are ... More


Inflationary cosmology after Planck

Andrei Linde

in Post-Planck Cosmology: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 100, July 2013

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198728856
eISBN:
9780191795794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198728856.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter gives a general review of inflationary cosmology and of its present status, in view of the 2013 data release by the Planck satellite. Specific emphasis is placed on a new broad class of ... More


Statistical Stability of Chaos

David P. Feldman

in Chaos and Fractals: An Elementary Introduction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199566433
eISBN:
9780191774966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566433.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Sensitive dependence on initial conditions makes it difficult to predict chaotic systems in the long term, as two initial conditions that begin close to each other rapidly get pushed apart. This ... More


Linear and Nonlinear Dynamic Behaviour

Ray Huffaker, Marco Bittelli, and Rodolfo Rosa

in Nonlinear Time Series Analysis with R

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198782933
eISBN:
9780191826153
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782933.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

In this chapter, we describe how highly erratic dynamic behavior can arise from a nonlinear logistic map, and how this apparently random behavior is governed by a surprising order. With this lesson ... More


The Nature of Explanation

Richard Swinburne

in The Existence of God

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239635
eISBN:
9780191598609
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239637.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

There are two kinds of explanation of phenomena – the scientific explanation in terms of laws of nature and initial conditions, or better in terms of things and their process as bio?; and personal ... More


Unequal Partners and Uneven Development

Deepak Nayyar

in Catch Up: Developing Countries in the World Economy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199652983
eISBN:
9780191761263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652983.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The distribution of catch up in industrialization and development was uneven not only among regions but also between countries within regions. There was a high degree of concentration among a few ... More


The Features of Chaos

Ray Huffaker, Marco Bittelli, and Rodolfo Rosa

in Nonlinear Time Series Analysis with R

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198782933
eISBN:
9780191826153
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782933.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

In this chapter we introduce the features of Chaotic systems. We describe “sensitivity to initial conditions” and its quantitative measure, the Lyapunov exponent, which reflect the average rate of ... More


Universality

David P. Feldman

in Chaos and Fractals: An Elementary Introduction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199566433
eISBN:
9780191774966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566433.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Chaotic behaviour can be observed in bounded orbits that have sensitive dependence on initial conditions and are generated by a deterministic equation. This chapter examines whether chaotic behaviour ... More


Framing Social Services as Complex Systems

Michael Wolf-Branigin

in Using Complexity Theory for Research and Program Evaluation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199829460
eISBN:
9780199315895
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199829460.003.0002
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter applies the components of complex systems to social work settings. Grasping these components early provides an essential link for properly identifying variables and related data sources ... More


Democracy, Diversity, and Development: India’s Strategy and Outcomes

Nirvikar Singh

in Achieving Development Success: Strategies and Lessons from the Developing World

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199671557
eISBN:
9780191751059
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671557.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This study examines India’s development strategy, and to what extent it may be considered a success. It provides a brief history of why and how the strategy was adopted, as well as of its ... More


Lew Platt Pivots HP Toward Commodity Business

Robert A. Burgelman, Webb McKinney, and Philip E. Meza

in Becoming Hewlett Packard: Why Strategic Leadership Matters

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780190640446
eISBN:
9780190640477
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190640446.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter documents the strategic leadership of Lew Platt, Hewlett Packard’s CEO during 1992–1999. It describes the initial conditions Platt faced in terms of the changing external context and the ... More


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