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The Child‐Scientist Theory

Alvin I. Goldman

in Simulating Minds: The Philosophy, Psychology, and Neuroscience of Mindreading

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195138924
eISBN:
9780199786480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195138929.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Early childhood failures on false-belief tasks and related tasks lead many developmental psychologists to conclude that children (like scientists) undergo a succession of changes in their ... More


Normal Development of Prefrontal Cortex from Birth to Young Adulthood: Cognitive Functions, Anatomy, and Biochemistry

Adele Diamond

in Principles of Frontal Lobe Function

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195134971
eISBN:
9780199864157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134971.003.0029
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes one of the longest periods of development of any brain region, taking over two decades to reach full maturity in humans. This chapter focuses on normal ... More


Review of the Evidence on, and Fundamental Questions About, Efforts to Improve Executive Functions, Including Working Memory

Adele Diamond and Daphne S. Ling

in Cognitive and Working Memory Training: Perspectives from Psychology, Neuroscience, and Human Development

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780199974467
eISBN:
9780190076177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199974467.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This systematic review of executive function (EF) interventions is the largest such review thus far, including 179 studies from all over the world, reported in 193 papers. It covers all the ways that ... More


Poverty and Cognitive Function

Emma Boswell Dean, Frank Schilbach, and Heather Schofield

in The Economics of Poverty Traps

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780226574301
eISBN:
9780226574448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226574448.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This paper is a primer for economists interested in the relationship between poverty and cognitive function. We begin by discussing a set of underlying aspects of cognitive function relevant to ... More


Multisensory processes in old age

Paul J. Laurienti and Christina E. Hugenschmidt

in Multisensory Development

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199586059
eISBN:
9780191741470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586059.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Aging is an important stage of development accompanied by changes in all five sensory systems, and recent research indicates that aging influences multisensory processing, as well. This chapter ... More


Inhibitory Control and Self-Control

Alejandra Sel and Joshua Shepherd

in Surrounding Self-Control

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780197500941
eISBN:
9780197500972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197500941.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter first considers what it would take to offer a scientific account of self-control. It then focuses on one aspect of this larger project, by focusing on a capacity central to many ... More


Working Memory and Aging: Current Status of the Inhibitory View

Ellen R. Stoltzfus, Lynn Hasher, and Rose T. Zacks

in Working Memory and Human Cognition

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195100990
eISBN:
9780199846849
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195100990.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses the status of the inhibitory view of working memory and its relation to aging. It considers evidence for the conceptualizations of working memory that stress its purported ... More


Wherefore a Horse Race: Inhibitory Control as Rational Decision Making

Pradeep Shenoy and Angela J. Yu

in Neural Basis of Motivational and Cognitive Control

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016438
eISBN:
9780262298490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016438.003.0020
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses a rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the stop signal task. It also demonstrates the influence of the reward structure and the global and local ... More


The Developmental and Cultural Origins of Our Beliefs about Self-Control

Adrienne Wente, Xin Zhao, Alison Gopnik, Carissa Kang, and Tamar Kushnir

in Surrounding Self-Control

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780197500941
eISBN:
9780197500972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197500941.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Self-control is quite difficult—sometimes people are successful, but frequently they are not. So why do people believe that they can choose, by their own free will, to exercise self-control? This ... More


Executive Functions and Writing Skills in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Associations and Dissociations

Stephen R. Hooper, Lara Costa, Edmund Fernandez, Alexandra Barker, Courtney Valdes, Stephanie Catlett, and Melissa Green

in Executive Functions and Writing

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780198863564
eISBN:
9780191896033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863564.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

In this chapter we provide an overview of what is known and unknown about the relationships between executive functions (EF) and written expression in children and adolescents, with an emphasis on ... More


Children’s responses to yes-no questions

V. Heather Fritzley, Mako Okanda, Shoji Itakura, and Kang Lee

in Access to Language and Cognitive Development

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199592722
eISBN:
9780191731488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592722.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Social Psychology

Questioning is one of the most important means to obtain information from children for both empirical and practical purposes. This chapter reviews research on the issue of whether children, ... More


Selective Attention and Inhibitory Control in the Aging Brain

Theodore P. Zanto and Adam Gazzaley

in Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging: Linking Cognitive and Cerebral Aging

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780199372935
eISBN:
9780190662264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199372935.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

In advanced age, selective attention and inhibitory control processes are known to decline. This chapter summarizes age-related changes in cognition and neural activity associated with information ... More


Theory of mind in deaf children: Illuminating the relative roles of language and executive functioning in the development of social cognition

Jennie Pyers and Peter A. de Villiers

in Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives from developmental social neuroscience

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199692972
eISBN:
9780191758515
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692972.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

While executive function and language both support false-belief understanding in typically developing children, our review of the research with deaf children shows that in this population, language ... More


Assessing Executive Functions in Young Children

Arlene R. Young, Mandeep K. Gurm, and Katherine A. O’Donnell

in Executive Functions in Children's Everyday Lives: A Handbook for Professionals in Applied Psychology

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199980864
eISBN:
9780190664633
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199980864.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The assessment of typical and atypical executive functioning in young children is important to clinicians, researchers, and educators interested in understanding children’s emerging emotion ... More


Brain Functional Contributors to Vulnerability for Substance Abuse: Neuroimaging Findings from the Michigan Longitudinal Study

Mary M. Heitzeg

in Alcohol Use Disorders: A Developmental Science Approach to Etiology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780190676001
eISBN:
9780190676032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190676001.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Substance use disorder (SUD) is one of the most significant health concerns worldwide; therefore, understanding the mechanisms that precede the onset and contribute to the escalation of substance use ... More


Puberty: Effects on the Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive Behavior

Janice M. Juraska

in Estrogens and Memory: Basic Research and Clinical Implications

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780190645908
eISBN:
9780190645922
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190645908.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter reviews the remodeling of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence, which occurs in both humans and rats. Other neural regions involved in cognitive behavior are also affected, but the ... More


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