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HOW WE COME TO KNOW: UNDERSTANDING INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIOR

Chun Wei Choo

in The Knowing Organization: How Organizations Use Information to Construct Meaning, Create Knowledge, and Make Decisions

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195176780
eISBN:
9780199789634
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176780.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, Knowledge Management

This chapter surveys the research in information seeking behavior, defined as the patterns of behavior that people display when they experience information needs, make choices about where and how to ... More


How Individual Differences Affect Executive Action

Sydney Finkelstein, Donald C. Hambrick, and Albert A. Cannella

in Strategic Leadership: Theory and Research on Executives, Top Management Teams, and Boards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195162073
eISBN:
9780199867332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195162073.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy

This chapter introduces and elaborates on the central idea that executives differ in what they personally bring to their decision-making situations and therefore differ in what they decide and how ... More


The Complexity of Information and Assimilation: Knowledge and Ignorance

Dawn R. Gilpin and Priscilla J. Murphy

in Crisis Management in a Complex World

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195328721
eISBN:
9780199869930
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195328721.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy

This chapter lays the foundations for a historical-contextual decision making that aims beyond tactics and information toward understanding and sensemaking. It does so by looking closely at ... More


Mental chronometry and the study of human information processing

Michael G. H. Coles, Henderikus G. O. M. Smid, Marten K. Scheffers, and Leun J. Otten

in Electrophysiology of Mind: Event-related Brain Potentials and Cognition

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198524168
eISBN:
9780191706639
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524168.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter examines the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) in the study of human information processing. Topics discussed include mental chronometry, chronopsychophysiology, the locus of ... More


Dynamic Decision Theory and Probabilistic Information Processing

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews ideas and work done or in progress which seem to indicate where basic research on human decision processes is going. These ideas have two closely related foci: dynamic decision ... More


Introduction: modeling memory and attention

Nelson Cowan

in Attention and Memory: An Integrated Framework

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195119107
eISBN:
9780199870097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195119107.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This historical chapter examines the fundamental relation between memory and attention. Information that is temporarily in or near conscious awareness is in the focus of attention, so attention and ... More


Deafness, Numerical Cognition, and Mathematics

Rebecca Bull

in Deaf Cognition: Foundations and Outcomes

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195368673
eISBN:
9780199894161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368673.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter examines recent findings about the development of numerical cognition in hearing individuals to understand the observed lag in arithmetical and mathematical performance of deaf children ... More


Family Relationships: An Evolutionary Perspective

Catherine A. Salmon and Todd K. Shackelford (eds)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195320510
eISBN:
9780199786800
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320510.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Kinship ties — the close relationships found within the family — have been a central focus of evolutionary biological analyses of social behavior ever since biologist William Hamilton extended the ... More


Attention and Memory: An Integrated Framework

Nelson Cowan

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195119107
eISBN:
9780199870097
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195119107.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

For decades, the fundamental processes underlying memory and attention have been understood within an “information processing” framework in which information passes from one processing stage to ... More


Neuropsychological Evidence

Allan Paivio

in Mental Representations: A dual coding approach

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195066661
eISBN:
9780199894086
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195066661.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews neuropsychological evidence concerning representational processes and dual coding theory. The evidence is provided by studies of functional differences between the two cerebral ... More


Concluding observations, with steps toward neuroscience

Nelson Cowan

in Attention and Memory: An Integrated Framework

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195119107
eISBN:
9780199870097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195119107.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The chapter emphasizes a level of analysis at which subdivisions are avoided until shown to be fundamental. It helps especially in investigations of short-term memory, selective attention, and the ... More


Working Memory in Infancy and Early Childhood: What Develops?

Maureen Hoskyn

in Self- and Social-Regulation: Exploring the Relations Between Social Interaction, Social Understanding, and the Development of Executive Functions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195327694
eISBN:
9780199776962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195327694.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The influence of social communicative activities on the emergence of working memory capacity in infants and young children is not well understood. On one hand, working memory capacity is thought to ... More


Information-Processing Approaches to Infants’ Developing Representation of Dynamic Features

Kelly L. Madole, Lisa M. Oakes, and David H. Rakison

in Infant Perception and Cognition: Recent Advances, Emerging Theories, and Future Directions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195366709
eISBN:
9780199863969
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366709.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Vision

A primary task for the developing infant is to categorize and represent the large number of complex and wide-ranging objects in the world. Without this ability, memory storage would be overstretched, ... More


Networks I: Logic and Information Processing

Brian Skyrms

in Signals: Evolution, Learning, and Information

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199580828
eISBN:
9780191722769
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580828.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the combination of simple signals to form complex signals. When multiple senders convey different information to a receiver (or to multiple receivers) the receiver is ... More


Introduction

Eric F. Clarke

in Ways of Listening: An Ecological Approach to the Perception of Musical Meaning

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195151947
eISBN:
9780199870400
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195151947.003.0001
Subject:
Music, Psychology of Music

This introductory chapter sets out the basic framework for the book, imagining the ways in which a person might perceive and interpret the meaning of some sounds recorded onto an unlabelled CD. It ... More


INFORMATION PROCESSING BY BIOLOGICAL AND ARTIFICIAL SMART STRUCTURES

Vinod K. Wadhawan

in Smart Structures: Blurring the Distinction Between the Living and the Nonliving

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199229178
eISBN:
9780191711282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199229178.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter begins with a brief survey of the history of logical thought, and of the basics of the interplay of natural processes that have led to the evolution of computational intelligence, both ... More


Information Management, Interagency Collaboration, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Agencies

E. Michael Foster, Rebecca Wells, and Yu Bai

in Child Welfare and Child Well-Being: New Perspectives From the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195398465
eISBN:
9780199863426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398465.003.0014
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families, Health and Mental Health

This presents a multiple-level contextual approach to test the impact of contextual variables on child-level outcomes. It is hypothesized that child welfare agencies with high levels of both ... More


New measures in performance management

Thomas Ahrens and Christopher S. Chapman

in Contemporary Issues in Management Accounting

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199283361
eISBN:
9780191712623
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199283361.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter discusses various aspects of the relationship between measurement and day-to-day activity. It emphasizes the potential contribution of academic knowledge to performance management ... More


The Information-Processing Approach

William Lyons

in Approaches to Intentionality

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198752226
eISBN:
9780191695087
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198752226.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Language

This chapter deals with the information-processing account of Fred Dretske, an account that combines the representational aspect of mental content and the teleological interpretation of its cognitive ... More


Retrieval

J. David Sweatt, Norman E. Spear, John M. Gardiner, and Kathleen B. McDermott

in Science of Memory: Concepts

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195310443
eISBN:
9780199865321
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310443.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This part presents four chapters on the concept of retrieval. The first chapter reviews four basic and greatly simplified sets of observations, that have been already published and which are relevant ... More


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