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 Knowing and Naming in Theology and Science

Gloria L. Schaab

in Creative Suffering of the Triune God: An Evolutionary Theology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195329124
eISBN:
9780199785711
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195329124.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Theology

Chapter 3 addresses the question of how theology in dialogue with science authentically expresses insights concerning the ineffable mystery of God and suffering. Because neither science nor theology ... More


The Reality of Causes in a World of Instrumental Laws

Nancy Cartwright

in How the Laws of Physics Lie

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247043
eISBN:
9780191597152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247044.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Argues in favour of a distinction between causal and theoretical explanation and claims that scientific realism can be defended for the former, but the latter can only defensibly be interpreted via ... More


 Causation

Wolfgang Spohn

in The Laws of Belief: Ranking Theory and Its Philosophical Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199697502
eISBN:
9780191739323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697502.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This is by far the longest chapter of the book. It deals with the most important and mysterious natural modality: causation. It proceeds from the basic idea underlying all deterministic and ... More


Best Explanations: New Essays on Inference to the Best Explanation

Kevin McCain and Ted Poston (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198746904
eISBN:
9780191809125
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746904.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Explanatory reasoning is quite common. Not only are rigorous inferences to the best explanation used pervasively in the sciences, explanatory reasoning is virtually ubiquitous in everyday life. ... More


Locke's Defense of the Senses

Georges Dicker

in Berkeley's Idealism: A Critical Examination

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195381467
eISBN:
9780199897124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195381467.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter closely analyzes Locke's attempt, in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, to deal with the problem of perception—an attempt that Berkeley knew well and trenchantly criticized. It ... More


Explanation

Christopher Pincock

in Mathematics and Scientific Representation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199757107
eISBN:
9780199932313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757107.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores the more recent attempts to rescue the indispensability argument for platonism by appeal to the explanatory contributions which mathematics makes in science. Pincock argues that ... More


The Rainbow

Christopher Pincock

in Mathematics and Scientific Representation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199757107
eISBN:
9780199932313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757107.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Batterman has emphasized the importance of asymptotic explanation where the explanation involves taking limits. This chapter presents a detailed reconstruction of one such explanation. It involves ... More


Best Explanations: An Introduction

Kevin McCain and Ted Poston

in Best Explanations: New Essays on Inference to the Best Explanation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198746904
eISBN:
9780191809125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746904.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter introduces the volume as a whole. It begins by briefly explaining inference to the best explanation and giving examples of explanatory reasoning from the sciences and everyday life. The ... More


Arguments Concerning Scientific Realism

Bas C. van Fraassen

in The Scientific Image

Published in print:
1980
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198244271
eISBN:
9780191597473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198244274.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines and criticizes the main arguments offered for scientific realism, here identified as the following view: Science aims to give us, in its theories, a literally true story of what ... More


Inference to the Best Explanation: Salvation by Laws?

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Induction has given way to Infere nce to the Best Explanation (IBE) in the epistemology hospitable to realism, or to metaphysics in general. Both Dretske and Armstrong provide severe critiques of ... More


Towards a New Epistemology

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The underground river of probabilism, slowly growing in force over three centuries, burst forth above ground in the twentieth century and brought new hope for epistemology. Probabilism sees its ... More


When Explanation Leads to Inference

Nancy Cartwright

in How the Laws of Physics Lie

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247043
eISBN:
9780191597152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247044.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

When is it justified to infer from the fact that a theory provides a good explanation of phenomena to the truth of the theory used in explanation (i.e. inference to the best explanation)? Bas van ... More


Beware of Syllogism: Statistical Reasoning and Conjecturing According to Peirce

Isaac Levi

in Pragmatism and Inquiry: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199698134
eISBN:
9780191742323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698134.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, History of Philosophy

In 1865 and 1866, Peirce appealed to Aristotle’s proposal that an inductive inference be understood as a transformation of a categorical syllogism by permuting the major premise and the conclusion ... More


Normative Logic and Psychology: Peirce’s Rejection of Psychologism

Christopher Hookway

in The Pragmatic Maxim: Essays on Peirce and pragmatism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199588381
eISBN:
9780191745089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588381.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Peirce often claimed that the conclusion of an abductive inference is often or usually in the interrogative mood. ‘Abduction’ is used by some scholars to refer to inference to the best explanation. ... More


Why Climate-Change Skeptics Are Wrong

Kristin Shrader-Frechette

in What Will Work: Fighting Climate Change with Renewable Energy, Not Nuclear Power

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794638
eISBN:
9780199919277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794638.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Chapter 1 begins by stressing the severity of climate change (CC) and showing how, contrary to popular belief, atomic energy is not a viable solution to ... More


The Epistemological Argument

Georges Dicker

in Berkeley's Idealism: A Critical Examination

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195381467
eISBN:
9780199897124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195381467.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, General

In Principles sections 18 and 20, Berkeley argues that even if matter existed, we could not know that it does. The core of the argument is that we cannot know that material things exist either by ... More


The Argument from the Deliberative Indispensability of Irreducibly Normative Truths

David Enoch

in Taking Morality Seriously: A Defense of Robust Realism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199579969
eISBN:
9780191729010
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579969.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter develops a positive argument for Robust Metanormative Realism that is modeled after indispensability arguments in the philosophy of mathematics or inferences to the best explanation more ... More


Miracles

Larry Shapiro

in The Miracle Myth: Why Belief in the Resurrection and the Supernatural is Unjustified

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780231178402
eISBN:
9780231542142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231178402.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Because miracles have supernatural causes, a justified belief that a given event is a miracle requires that one be justified in believing that its cause is supernatural. But the only way to infer ... More


Cumulative Case Arguments in Religious Epistemology

Robert Audi

in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 8

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198806967
eISBN:
9780191844461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198806967.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Philosophers and others characteristically give multiple arguments for their important controversial views. Why is one good argument not enough? Most philosophers would perhaps agree to this much: at ... More


Theory Appraisal: Inference to the Best Explanation

Brian D. Haig

in Investigating the Psychological World: Scientific Method in the Behavioral Sciences

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262027366
eISBN:
9780262322379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027366.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter recommends the use of inference to the best explanation for evaluating the worth of theories in psychology. It is suggested that it is a more appropriate account of theory appraisal than ... More


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