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 Knowing and Naming in Theology and Science

Gloria L. Schaab

in Creative Suffering of the Triune God: An Evolutionary Theology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195329124
eISBN:
9780199785711
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195329124.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Theology

Chapter 3 addresses the question of how theology in dialogue with science authentically expresses insights concerning the ineffable mystery of God and suffering. Because neither science nor theology ... More


 Causation

Wolfgang Spohn

in The Laws of Belief: Ranking Theory and Its Philosophical Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199697502
eISBN:
9780191739323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697502.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This is by far the longest chapter of the book. It deals with the most important and mysterious natural modality: causation. It proceeds from the basic idea underlying all deterministic and ... More


Inference to the Best Explanation: Salvation by Laws?

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Induction has given way to Infere nce to the Best Explanation (IBE) in the epistemology hospitable to realism, or to metaphysics in general. Both Dretske and Armstrong provide severe critiques of ... More


Locke's Defense of the Senses

Georges Dicker

in Berkeley's Idealism: A Critical Examination

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195381467
eISBN:
9780199897124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195381467.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter closely analyzes Locke's attempt, in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, to deal with the problem of perception—an attempt that Berkeley knew well and trenchantly criticized. It ... More


The Argument from the Deliberative Indispensability of Irreducibly Normative Truths

David Enoch

in Taking Morality Seriously: A Defense of Robust Realism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199579969
eISBN:
9780191729010
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579969.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter develops a positive argument for Robust Metanormative Realism that is modeled after indispensability arguments in the philosophy of mathematics or inferences to the best explanation more ... More


Theory Appraisal: Inference to the Best Explanation

Brian D. Haig

in Investigating the Psychological World: Scientific Method in the Behavioral Sciences

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262027366
eISBN:
9780262322379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027366.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter recommends the use of inference to the best explanation for evaluating the worth of theories in psychology. It is suggested that it is a more appropriate account of theory appraisal than ... More


The Rainbow

Christopher Pincock

in Mathematics and Scientific Representation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199757107
eISBN:
9780199932313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757107.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Batterman has emphasized the importance of asymptotic explanation where the explanation involves taking limits. This chapter presents a detailed reconstruction of one such explanation. It involves ... More


Explanation

Christopher Pincock

in Mathematics and Scientific Representation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199757107
eISBN:
9780199932313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757107.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explores the more recent attempts to rescue the indispensability argument for platonism by appeal to the explanatory contributions which mathematics makes in science. Pincock argues that ... More


Arguments Concerning Scientific Realism

Bas C. van Fraassen

in The Scientific Image

Published in print:
1980
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198244271
eISBN:
9780191597473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198244274.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines and criticizes the main arguments offered for scientific realism, here identified as the following view: Science aims to give us, in its theories, a literally true story of what ... More


When Explanation Leads to Inference

Nancy Cartwright

in How the Laws of Physics Lie

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247043
eISBN:
9780191597152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247044.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

When is it justified to infer from the fact that a theory provides a good explanation of phenomena to the truth of the theory used in explanation (i.e. inference to the best explanation)? Bas van ... More


Newtonian Extensions, a Rival, Justifying Induction, and Evidence

Peter Achinstein

in Evidence and Method: Scientific Strategies of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199921850
eISBN:
9780199332892
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199921850.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter considers several extensions of Newton's rules. These include a powerful rival methodology, viz. “inference to the best explanation,” which is rejected; Hume's problem of justifying ... More


Explanation and Explanationism in Science and Metaphysics

Juha Saatsi

in Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science: New Essays

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199363209
eISBN:
9780199363216
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199363209.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter examines the status of inference to the best explanation in naturalistic metaphysics. The methodology of inference to the best explanation in metaphysics is studied from the perspective ... More


The Reality of Causes in a World of Instrumental Laws

Nancy Cartwright

in How the Laws of Physics Lie

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247043
eISBN:
9780191597152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247044.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Argues in favour of a distinction between causal and theoretical explanation and claims that scientific realism can be defended for the former, but the latter can only defensibly be interpreted via ... More


Antiskepticism about Dreaming and Dream Reporting: From Default Assumption to Theoretical Justification

Jennifer M. Windt

in Dreaming: A Conceptual Framework for Philosophy of Mind and Empirical Research

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780262028677
eISBN:
9780262327466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028677.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The chapter brings together the two lines of thought investigated in chapters 1-3. These are the philosophical debate on dream experience and dream reporting, ranging from Cartesian dream skepticism ... More


Beware of Syllogism: Statistical Reasoning and Conjecturing According to Peirce

Isaac Levi

in Pragmatism and Inquiry: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199698134
eISBN:
9780191742323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698134.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, History of Philosophy

In 1865 and 1866, Peirce appealed to Aristotle’s proposal that an inductive inference be understood as a transformation of a categorical syllogism by permuting the major premise and the conclusion ... More


Normative Logic and Psychology: Peirce’s Rejection of Psychologism

Christopher Hookway

in The Pragmatic Maxim: Essays on Peirce and pragmatism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199588381
eISBN:
9780191745089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588381.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Peirce often claimed that the conclusion of an abductive inference is often or usually in the interrogative mood. ‘Abduction’ is used by some scholars to refer to inference to the best explanation. ... More


Inference to the Best Explanation: Fundamentalism’s Failures

Kareem Khalifa, Jared Millson, and Mark Risjord

in Best Explanations: New Essays on Inference to the Best Explanation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198746904
eISBN:
9780191809125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746904.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Many epistemologists take Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) to be “fundamental.” For instance, Lycan (1988, 128) writes that “all justified reasoning is fundamentally explanatory reasoning.” ... More


Towards a New Epistemology

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Laws and Symmetry

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198248606
eISBN:
9780191597459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198248601.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The underground river of probabilism, slowly growing in force over three centuries, burst forth above ground in the twentieth century and brought new hope for epistemology. Probabilism sees its ... More


Inference to the Best Explanation and the Receipt of Testimony: Testimonial Reductionism Vindicated

Elizabeth Fricker

in Best Explanations: New Essays on Inference to the Best Explanation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198746904
eISBN:
9780191809125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198746904.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The chapter develops a local reductionist account of what is required for testimonial beliefs to be justified, and argues that human recipients of testimony typically form their beliefs in accordance ... More


Perceptual knowledge

Georges Dicker

in Locke on Knowledge and Reality: A Commentary on An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780190662196
eISBN:
9780190662233
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190662196.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter critically analyzes Locke’s views on “sensitive knowledge.” Its main theses are: (1) Locke sometimes confuses the legitimate question (Q1), “When we perceive a body, how can we know that ... More


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