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Exploring Inductive Risk: An Introduction

Kevin C. Elliott and Ted Richards

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The introductory chapter provides an overview of the book Exploring Inductive Risk. It introduces the concept of inductive risk, briefly traces the history of the argument from inductive risk, and ... More


The Geography of Epistemic Risk

Justin B. Biddle and Rebecca Kukla

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

At each stage of inquiry, actions, choices, and judgments carry with them a chance that they will lead to mistakes and false conclusions. One of the most vigorously discussed kinds of epistemic risk ... More


Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Kevin C. Elliott and Ted Richards (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

According to the argument from inductive risk, scientists have responsibilities to consider the consequences of error when they set evidential standards for making decisions such as accepting or ... More


The Inductive Risk of “Demasculinization”

Jack Powers

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

That scientists should countenance non-epistemic values in their scientific practices has become widely accepted, in part on the basis of arguments from inductive risk. But traditional arguments from ... More


Exploring Inductive Risk: Future Questions

Kevin C. Elliott and Ted Richards

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This concluding chapter provides a roadmap for future studies of inductive risk by drawing attention to three particularly important sets of questions that emerge from Exploring Inductive Risk: (1) ... More


Advice about Decisions

Paul Weirich

in Rational Responses to Risks

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780190089412
eISBN:
9780190089443
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190089412.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Professionals, such as financial planners, may advise their clients or, with authorization, make decisions for their clients. A typical goal is an act that the client may perform if rational and ... More


Drug Regulation and the Inductive Risk Calculus

Jacob Stegenga

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The drug approval process is fraught with inductive risk. Regulators must make a prediction about whether or not an experimental drug will be effective and safe. Such inductive risk has important ... More


Inductive Risk and Values in Composite Outcome Measures

Roger Stanev

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Composite outcomes are becoming widespread in clinical trials. By combining individual outcome measures (e.g., death, non-fatal heart attack, non-fatal stroke, re-hospitalization) as a single ... More


Making Uncertainties Explicit: The Jeffreyan Value-Free Ideal and Its Limits

David M. Frank

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

According to Richard Jeffrey’s value-free ideal, scientists should avoid making value judgments about inductive risks by offering explicit representations of scientific uncertainty to ... More


Measuring Inequality: The Roles of Values and Inductive Risk

Robin Andreasen and Heather Doty

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The focus of this chapter is on the argument from inductive risk in the context of social science research on disparate impact in employment outcomes. It identifies three types of situations in the ... More


Inductive Risk and the Role of Values in Clinical Trials

Robyn Bluhm

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the implications of clinical research for philosophical discussions of inductive risk, focusing on three methodological debates: (1) the necessity of randomization, (2) the ... More


Inductive Risk, Deferred Decisions, and Climate Science Advising

Joyce C. Havstad and Matthew J. Brown

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the philosophical viability of Ottmar Edenhofer and Martin Kowarsch’s proposed pragmatic-enlightened model of science advising, as well as the practical application of their ... More


Dual-Use Research and Inductive Risk

David B. Resnik

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Dual-use research is research that can be readily employed for beneficial or harmful purposes. Using recent examples from biomedical science, this chapter argues that scientists who are assessing the ... More


Safe or Sorry? Cancer Screening and Inductive Risk

Anya Plutynski

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The general assumption behind cancer screening has been that early diagnosis and treatment is effective at reducing cancer-related mortality; this is broadly speaking true, for some cancer screening ... More


Imposing Unfair Risks

Inmaculada de Melo-Martín and Kristen Intemann

in The Fight Against Doubt: How to Bridge the Gap Between Scientists and the Public

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780190869229
eISBN:
9780190869236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190869229.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapters evaluates whether inductive risks judgments can serve as a reliable criterion to identify normatively inappropriate dissent (NID). Dissent that calls for rejecting certain consensus ... More


Decisions, Decisions: Inductive Risk and the Higgs Boson

Kent W. Staley

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Much of the discussion of the argument from inductive risk (AIR) centers on scientific research that has relevance to policymaking. To emphasize that inductive risk pervades science, this chapter ... More


Models of Climate: Values and Uncertainties

in Science in the Age of Computer Simulation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226902029
eISBN:
9780226902050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226902050.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter, which focuses on simulation models of climate and its future, investigates whether it is reasonable to expect climate modelers to exclude non-epistemic values from the internal aspects ... More


Situated Knowledge, Purity, and Moral Panic

Quill R. Kukla

in Applied Epistemology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198833659
eISBN:
9780191872082
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833659.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

A great deal of contemporary epistemology is driven by a kind of moral panic over the worry that there are no “pure” epistemic practices, perspectives, or standards detachable from the social ... More


From Disease to Risk

Anya Plutynski

in Explaining Cancer: Finding Order in Disorder

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780199967452
eISBN:
9780190878474
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199967452.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In Chapter 2, I consider several “line-drawing” problems. First, in the diagnosis of early-stage cancer, there is an epistemic risk involved in assessing whether a suspicious lesion is likely to ... More


What If We Are Uncertain?

Kevin C. Elliott

in A Tapestry of Values: An Introduction to Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780190260804
eISBN:
9780190260842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190260804.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the role of values in responding to scientific uncertainty. First, using the work of James Hansen as a case study, it shows how values are relevant to deciding how boldly to ... More


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