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Intervention Studies

K. Warner Schaie

in Developmental Influences on Adult Intelligence: The Seattle longitudinal study

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156737
eISBN:
9780199786817
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156737.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter reports the results of the cognitive intervention studies and their long-term follow-up and replication with new cohorts, as part of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. These studies lead to ... More


The Inductive Potential of Categories

Susan A. Gelman

in The Essential Child: Origins of Essentialism in Everyday Thought

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195154061
eISBN:
9780199786718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154061.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Preschool children are not scientists, but they would (implicitly) agree with Gould's assessment of categories, at least in certain domains. With their classifications, children are attempting to ... More


PHILOSOPHICAL BACKGROUND

Shoutir Kishore Chatterjee

in Statistical Thought: A Perspective and History

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525318
eISBN:
9780191711657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525318.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

The core of statistics is concerned with the solution of special types of problems of induction following special modes of reasoning. In the inductive process, some at least of the premises are ... More


Reasons

Lance J. Rips

in Lines of Thought: Central Concepts in Cognitive Psychology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195183054
eISBN:
9780199865109
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183054.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter attempts to make the case for the possibility that a distinct cognitive process is responsible for our ability to recognize entailments as logically necessary relations. It shows that ... More


Health risks and probabilistic reasoning

Bob Heyman

in Risk, Safety and Clinical Practice: Health care through the lens of risk

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198569008
eISBN:
9780191717499
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569008.003.04
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses inductive probabilistic reasoning, considered as one method for developing expectations about future or otherwise uncertain outcomes. It argues that although inductive ... More


Laurence Jonathan Cohen 1923–2006

Issac Levi

in Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 153 Biographical Memoirs of Fellows, VII

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264348
eISBN:
9780191734250
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264348.003.0008
Subject:
History, Historiography

Laurence Jonathan Cohen (1923–2006), a Fellow of the British Academy, was one of two sons of Israel Cohen and Theresa Jacobs. His parents were orthodox Jews who were active in the World Zionist ... More


Induction, Concept Combination, and Neuropsychology

Edouard Machery

in Doing without Concepts

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195306880
eISBN:
9780199867950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306880.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter considers additional evidence for the Heterogeneity Hypothesis. It focuses on the research on inductive reasoning and concept combination. Particularly, it establishes that people have ... More


Life forms: A Keyword Entry

Stefan Helmreich and Sophia Roosth

in Sounding the Limits of Life: Essays in the Anthropology of Biology and Beyond

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691164809
eISBN:
9781400873869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691164809.003.0002
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter examines how natural philosophers and scientists in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries employed the term “life form.” It asks how life came to have a form, where the ... More


Laws and Modalities in Scientific Practice

Joseph Rouse

in Articulating the World: Conceptual Understanding and the Scientific Image

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226293677
eISBN:
9780226293707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226293707.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter addresses how laws and natural necessity figure in scientific understanding, by developing and extending Marc Lange’s and John Haugeland’s complementary accounts of the role of laws in ... More


 Conditional Independence and Ranking Nets

Wolfgang Spohn

in The Laws of Belief: Ranking Theory and Its Philosophical Applications

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199697502
eISBN:
9780191739323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697502.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

The antonym of (conditional) relevance is (conditional) irrelevance or independence. The chapter introduces this notion and develops its theory. It thus turns out that the full theory of Bayesian ... More


Ecological Intelligence

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Human color vision is adapted to the spectral properties of natural sunlight. More generally, the perceptual system has been shaped by the environment in which human ancestors evolved, the ... More


Evaluative Induction

John L. Pollock

in Thinking about Acting: Logical Foundations for Rational Decision Making

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195304817
eISBN:
9780199850907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304817.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

How does evaluative induction work? This can be divided into three separate questions. First, what are the values stored in the evaluative database? They are values the agent attaches to features, ... More


Failed Attempts: The Frailties of Narrative Methods

J. D. Trout

in Measuring the Intentional World: Realism, Naturalism, and Quantitative Methods in the Behavioral Sciences

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195107661
eISBN:
9780199786152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195107667.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The epistemological naturalism expressed by Population-Guided Estimation supports measured realism about the social and behavioral sciences, but also has striking implications for the way traditional ... More


Newtonian Extensions, a Rival, Justifying Induction, and Evidence

Peter Achinstein

in Evidence and Method: Scientific Strategies of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199921850
eISBN:
9780199332892
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199921850.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter considers several extensions of Newton's rules. These include a powerful rival methodology, viz. “inference to the best explanation,” which is rejected; Hume's problem of justifying ... More


Objective Probabilities

John L. Pollock

in Thinking about Acting: Logical Foundations for Rational Decision Making

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195304817
eISBN:
9780199850907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304817.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter aims at making sense of objective probability and rebutting the arguments that led, historically, to its falling into disrepute. Philosophers often fail to realize that there are a ... More


Multi‐Process Theories

Edouard Machery

in Doing without Concepts

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195306880
eISBN:
9780199867950
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306880.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter investigates the contours of those theories that assume that a single cognitive competence, for instance, inductive reasoning, is underwritten by several cognitive processes (a branch of ... More


Reasoning

Phil Johnson-Laird

in Inside Psychology: A science over 50 years

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199228768
eISBN:
9780191696336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228768.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examimes changes and developments in the study of reasoning. It discusses the recognition and acceptance of the notion that reasoning depends on constructing mental models of situations, ... More


Conclusion: mere similarity?

ULrike Hahn and Michael Ramscar

in Similarity and Categorization

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198506287
eISBN:
9780191686962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506287.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter revisits the controversies that currently surround the use of similarity as an explanatory tool both in categorization and inductive reasoning. It sifts through the various arguments ... More


Contexts and Causes

Thomas A. Apel

in Feverish Bodies, Enlightened Minds: Science and the Yellow Fever Controversy in the Early American Republic

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780804797405
eISBN:
9780804799638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804797405.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

Chapter One frames the parameters of the debate and establishes the prevailing intellectual orientation of the investigators. As scientists, investigators cast themselves as the descendants of Bacon, ... More


On Understanding the Nature of Scientific Knowledge

Susan Carey and Carol Smith

in Software Goes to School: Teaching for Understanding with New Technologies

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195115772
eISBN:
9780199848041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195115772.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry is the central topic of this section. The authors communicate their opposition to the usual textbook practice, and assert that science is not just a ... More


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