Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation

You are looking at 1-20 of 99 items

  • Keywords: individual differences x
Clear All Modify Search

View:

Efficacy and Effectiveness of Cochlear Implants in Deaf Children

David B. Pisoni, Christopher M. Conway, William G. Kronenberger, David L. Horn, Jennifer Karpicke, and Shirley C. Henning

in Deaf Cognition: Foundations and Outcomes

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195368673
eISBN:
9780199894161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368673.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter explores the large individual differences in speech and language outcomes in deaf children who have received cochlear implants (CIs). It argues that that the variability in performance ... More


Motivational Influences on Cognitive Control: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

Hannah S. Locke and Todd S. Braver

in Self Control in Society, Mind, and Brain

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195391381
eISBN:
9780199776894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391381.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Social Psychology

Motivation is an important component of self-regulation that helps set the effort level an organism is willing to expend to achieve a desired goal. However, motivation is an elusive concept in ... More


Individual Differences

Guy Mittleman

in The Behavior of the Laboratory Rat: A Handbook with Tests

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195162851
eISBN:
9780199863891
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195162851.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter suggests that rats, like humans, display profound individual differences that have relevance for understanding a variety of normal and pathological conditions. Variability in the ... More


Challenges

Craig P. Speelman and Kim Kirsner

in Beyond the Learning Curve: The construction of mind

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198570417
eISBN:
9780191708657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570417.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents a number of challenges for research into skill acquisition and transfer. In particular, a range of factors are considered that can determine whether a skill will be ... More


Evolutionary considerations: the primacy of the implicit

Arthur S. Reber

in Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195106589
eISBN:
9780199871698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195106589.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter introduces the foundations of the evolutionary model and develops the formal theory. The model is based on the assumption of the primacy of the implicit and axioms derived from Wimsatt's ... More


Working Memory Capacity: Self-control Is (in) the Goal

James M. Broadway, Thomas S. Redick, and Randall W. Engle

in Self Control in Society, Mind, and Brain

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195391381
eISBN:
9780199776894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391381.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Social Psychology

Self-control is defined in relation to current goals of an organism. Working memory capacity (WMC) is defined as a cognitive system for maintaining access to goal representations as needed. ... More


Stress and Neuroergonomics

Peter A. Hancock and James L. Szalma

in Neuroergonomics: The brain at work

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195177619
eISBN:
9780199864683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177619.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter begins with a brief overview of the major conceptual approaches to the study of stress, including a short historical account and a précis of the more recent stress theories. It discusses ... More


Links with other methods

J. C. Gower and G. B. Dijksterhuis

in Procrustes Problems

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198510581
eISBN:
9780191708961
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198510581.003.0013
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

The multi-set Procrustes problem may be viewed as a part of the family of three-mode multidimensional scaling methods. This chapter discusses links with other three-mode methods, especially PINDIS, ... More


Bridging the Gap Between Modern Evolutionary Psychology and the Study of Individual Differences

Lars Penke

in The Evolution of Personality and Individual Differences

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195372090
eISBN:
9780199893485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372090.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter explores how individual differences can be better integrated into modern evolutionary psychology. It first introduces life history theory as arguably the most important evolutionary ... More


Modularity and Design Reincarnatio n

H. Clark Barrett

in The Innate Mind: Volume 2: Culture and Cognition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195310139
eISBN:
9780199871209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310139.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Critics of cognitive modularity typically attack a biologically implausible concept of modules as rigidly innate, invariant from individual to individual, and immune to individual developmental ... More


Comparative Experimental Evidence from Machiguenga, Mapuche, Huinca, and American Populations

Joseph Henrich and Natalie Smith

in Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifteen Small-Scale Societies

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199262052
eISBN:
9780191601637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199262055.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Experimental results are reported from Ultimatum and Public Goods Games performed among the Machiguenga of the Peruvian Amazon, the Mapuche and Huinca of southern Chile, and US control groups in Los ... More


 Domain Introduction

Richard J. Davidson

in Interdisciplinary Research: Case Studies from Health and Social Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195324273
eISBN:
9780199893966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195324273.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents an overview of the three chapters (Chapters 6-8) in Part II of the book. Each of the chapters tells a story about a successful interdisciplinary outcome focused on certain ... More


Individuals, Behavior, and What Lies Between the Two

Donal E. Carlston and William G. Graziano

in Then A Miracle Occurs: Focusing on Behavior in Social Psychological Theory and Research

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195377798
eISBN:
9780199864522
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195377798.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter provides a summary of the first section of the book, titled “Behavior and Intra-Individual Processes.” Chapters in this section provide a diverse set of views on the relationship between ... More


Individual Differences in Attention

Holly Alliger Ruff and Mary Klevjord Rothbart

in Attention in Early Development: Themes and Variations

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195136326
eISBN:
9780199894031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136326.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter discusses evidence for individual differences in dimensions of attention already identified. It reviews methods for determining whether reliable individual differences exist, and ... More


Personality and the Adaptive Landscape: The Role of Individual Differences in Creating and Solving Social Adaptive Problems

David M. Buss

in The Evolution of Personality and Individual Differences

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195372090
eISBN:
9780199893485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372090.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter examines the evolutionary importance of personality traits of the self and of other people residing in each person's social landscape, regardless of their evolutionary origins. It ... More


A Global Window on Memory Development

Michelle D. Leichtman

in Bridging Cultural and Developmental Approaches to Psychology: New Syntheses in Theory, Research, and Policy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195383430
eISBN:
9780199827176
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195383430.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter focuses on culture and memory development, addressing three central questions: Where (i.e., on what kinds of tasks) should we look for cultural effects on memory? What is the empirical ... More


Intrinsic Uncertainty and Transducer Functions

Norma van Surdam Graham

in Visual Pattern Analyzers

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195051544
eISBN:
9780199872183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195051544.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Intrinsic uncertainty arises from sources intrinsic to the observer, in particular from the observer's inability to attend to only the relevant information (attention limitations) and inability to ... More


Explaining Individual Differences in Personality: Why We Need a Modular Theory

Judith Rich Harris

in The Evolution of Personality and Individual Differences

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195372090
eISBN:
9780199893485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372090.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

People vary in personality and social behavior. It is generally accepted that some of this variation is due to differences in genes and some to “environment”—that is, to differences in people's ... More


Research on Taste and Smell

Adrienne Lehrer

in Wine and Conversation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195307931
eISBN:
9780199867493
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307931.003.0012
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

Much progress has been made in the psychophysics of taste and smell. Gas chromatography has enabled scientist to determine even trace amount of aroma compounds in wine. Functional magnetic resonance ... More


Twin, Adoption, and Family Methods as Approaches to the Evolution of Individual Differences

Nancy L. Segal

in The Evolution of Personality and Individual Differences

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195372090
eISBN:
9780199893485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372090.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

Individual differences in behavior have been of great concern to behavioral geneticists whose interests span a wide range of phenotypes. Individual behavioral variation has, however, received less ... More


View: