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Cooperation and the Individual

Lee Cronk and Beth L. Leech

in Meeting at Grand Central: Understanding the Social and Evolutionary Roots of Cooperation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154954
eISBN:
9781400845484
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154954.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter examines the evolutionary roots of the proximate psychological mechanisms that underlie cooperation. The idea that there are specific biological mechanisms behind at least some aspects ... More


The Sociobiology of Human Cooperation

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis

in A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151250
eISBN:
9781400838837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151250.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter examines the sociobiology of human cooperation. Given the tendency of people to copy the successful and the fact that natural selection favors the more fit, the chapter asks how our ... More


Three Models of Intergenerational Reciprocity

Axel Gosseries

in Intergenerational Justice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199282951
eISBN:
9780191712319
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199282951.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter explores the specificities, strengths, and weaknesses of the idea of reciprocity as a basis for intergenerational obligations. Three models are presented: descending, ascending, and ... More


Indirect Reciprocity

Karl Sigmund

in Human Social Evolution: The Foundational Works of Richard D. Alexander

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199791750
eISBN:
9780190267858
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199791750.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explores how and why humans exhibit morality. It considers the influence of group competition on human evolution as well as Richard D. Alexander's concept of indirect reciprocity, its ... More


The Evolution of Uniquely Human Prosocial Behaviors

Dennis L. Krebs

in The Origins of Morality: An Evolutionary Account

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199778232
eISBN:
9780199897261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199778232.003.0026
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter reviews and evaluates accounts of how the mental mechanisms that dispose people to emit uniquely human forms of prosocial behavior evolved, beginning with Boehm’s proposition that ... More


The Evolution of Cooperation

Dennis L. Krebs

in The Origins of Morality: An Evolutionary Account

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199778232
eISBN:
9780199897261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199778232.003.0022
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter reviews theory and research on the evolution of several forms of cooperation, including incidental helping, mutualism, sharing, turn-taking, direct reciprocity, and indirect reciprocity. ... More


Reciprocity

Richard Mcelreath and Robert Boyd

in Mathematical Models of Social Evolution: A Guide for the Perplexed

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226558264
eISBN:
9780226558288
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226558288.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

In most primate societies, individuals have long-lasting relationships with other members of their groups. Individual monkeys often have preferred grooming partners and reliable allies. If allies and ... More


How populations cohere: five rules for cooperation

Martin A. Nowak and Karl Sigmund

in Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199209989
eISBN:
9780191917370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199209989.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

Subsequent chapters in this volume deal with populations as dynamic entities in time and space. Populations are, of course, made up of individuals, and the parameters ... More


Why Sanction? Functional Causes of Punishment and Reward

Pat Barclay and Toko Kiyonari

in Reward and Punishment in Social Dilemmas

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199300730
eISBN:
9780190221041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199300730.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Many disciplines find it puzzling that costly cooperation exists within groups of non-kin. Cooperation can be sustained when non-cooperators are punished or when cooperators are rewarded, but these ... More


Intergenerational Justice

Joseph Heath

in Philosophical Foundations of Climate Change Policy

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780197567982
eISBN:
9780197568019
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197567982.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The problem of climate change has generated renewed interest in the question of what we owe to future generations. This question is often thought to pose special problems for contractualists, because ... More


Evolution and Humor

Stan Braude

in Human Social Evolution: The Foundational Works of Richard D. Alexander

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199791750
eISBN:
9780190267858
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199791750.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter introduces a 1986 article by Richard D. Alexander entitled “Ostracism and Indirect Reciprocity: The Reproductive Significance of Humor,” in which he tackles the social-evolutionary ... More


The struggle for reputation

Péter Érdi

in Ranking: The Unwritten Rules of the Social Game We All Play

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780190935467
eISBN:
9780190935498
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190935467.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses what reputation is and why and how we are struggling for it. Reputation can be considered a form of currency, and our reputation determines whether or not other people invest ... More


Variation, Consistency, and Reputation

John M. McNamara and Olof Leimar

in Game Theory in Biology: concepts and frontiers

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198815778
eISBN:
9780191853456
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198815778.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

There is typically considerable between-individual variation in trait values in natural populations. Game theory has often ignored this, treating individuals as the same. However, the existence and ... More


Tags, Interaction Patterns, and the Evolution of Cooperation

Rick L. Riolo and Michael D. Cohen

in Perspectives on Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162929
eISBN:
9780197562116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162929.003.0018
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

There are several key ideas that appear in almost all of John Holland's writings on artificial and natural complex adaptive systems: internal models, default hierarchies, genetic (evolutionary) ... More


Social ranking in animal and human societies

Péter Érdi

in Ranking: The Unwritten Rules of the Social Game We All Play

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780190935467
eISBN:
9780190935498
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190935467.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter studies how social ranking in humans emerged as the result of an evolutionary process. It starts with the story of the discovery of pecking order among chickens by a Norwegian boy. Both ... More


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