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Introduction to the Broadly Classical Options

Hartry Field

in Saving Truth From Paradox

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199230747
eISBN:
9780191710933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230747.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter is a short introduction to the ways of dealing with the Liar paradox within classical logic. It distinguishes classical gap theories, classical glut theories, and weakly classical ... More


Philosophical Relativity

Peter Unger

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195155532
eISBN:
9780199833818
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019515553X.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Challenges the deeply held assumption that many of the most central philosophical problems admit of deterministic, objective solutions. The position argued for here, philosophical relativism, is the ... More


Algebraic Thought in Medieval India

Victor J. Katz and Karen Hunger Parshall

in Taming the Unknown: A History of Algebra from Antiquity to the Early Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149059
eISBN:
9781400850525
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149059.003.0006
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter explores medieval Indian algebraic thought in the works of Āryabhạ‎ta, author of the astronomical treatise Āryabhạ‎tīya (ca. 500 CE), and Brahmagupta, who wrote the ... More


Do Paracomplete Solutions Depend on Expressive Limitations?

Hartry Field

in Saving Truth From Paradox

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199230747
eISBN:
9780191710933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230747.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The chapter considers various versions of the charge that paradox has been avoided only by limiting the expressive power of the language. The charge that the language has no ‘exclusion negation’ but ... More


Tort Liability Under Uncertainty

Ariel Porat and Alex Stein

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198267973
eISBN:
9780191683435
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198267973.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Law of Obligations

Uncertainty is present in virtually every tort litigation. Generally, courts tackle the uncertainty problem by requiring the plaintiff to prove his case by the preponderance of the evidence. However, ... More


Composition as Non‐Identity

Kathrin Koslicki

in The Structure of Objects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199539895
eISBN:
9780191716300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539895.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Ancient Philosophy

The positive view adopted later in this book defends a conception of parthood and composition which carries genuine ontological commitment: contrary to the Lewisian Composition-as-Identity model, ... More


Blaise and Bayes

Alan Hájek

in Probability in the Philosophy of Religion

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199604760
eISBN:
9780191741548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604760.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Pascal presents at least three ‘wagers’ for believing in God. Hacking provides three reconstructions of them using the apparatus of Bayesian decision theory — dominance reasoning and calculations of ... More


Identity

Terence Parsons

in Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198250449
eISBN:
9780191681301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198250449.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

This chapter discusses identity. Real identity in the world is defined in terms of coincidence of properties: objects are identical if they both determinately have and determinately lack the same ... More


Non-Conditional Disputations

Terence Parsons

in Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198250449
eISBN:
9780191681301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198250449.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

This chapter discusses a number of attempts to prove that there can be no such thing as indeterminate identity. The arguments discussed here are limited to ones that do not turn on the logic or ... More


Understanding Indeterminacy

Terence Parsons

in Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198250449
eISBN:
9780191681301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198250449.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

The terminology used in explaining indeterminate identity is meant to be ordinary; ‘identical’ is not intended in a special sense. ‘Indeterminate’ may be definable within certain world views, but is ... More


Denoting Objects

Terence Parsons

in Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198250449
eISBN:
9780191681301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198250449.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

This chapter addresses the question of how one may refer determinately to objects that are indeterminately identical to other objects. Some authors have suggested that if it is indeterminate whether ... More


Rethinking Arab Democratization: Elections without Democracy

Larbi Sadiki

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199562985
eISBN:
9780191721182
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562985.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Democratization

This book unpacks and historicizes the rise of Arab electoralism, narrating the story of stalled democratic transition in the Arab Middle East. It provides a balance sheet of the state of Arab ... More


Sentencing Reform

Samuel Walker

in Taming the System: The Control of Discretion in Criminal Justice, 1950–1990

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195078206
eISBN:
9780199854202
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195078206.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Unlike in other parts of the criminal process where discretion is not acknowledged, in sentencing discretion is eminently visible and is celebrated as the cornerstone of sentencing policy. This ... More


Vagueness and Indeterminacy

Stephen Schiffer

in The Things We Mean

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199257768
eISBN:
9780191602313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257760.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

A theory of vagueness must lie at the heart of any complete theory of meaning. This chapter offers a theory of vagueness, and of indeterminacy generally, since the indeterminacy of vague borderline ... More


How to be a Nominalist and a Fictional Realist

Ross P. Cameron

in Art and Abstract Objects

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199691494
eISBN:
9780191746277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691494.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The fictional monster Cthulhu was created by H.P. Lovecraft. Therefore there is some thing, Cthulhu, that Lovecraft created. Cthulhu is a fictional being, so there are fictional beings. You can’t ... More


How Parliament’s language affects individual rights

Matthew Williams

in How Language Works in Politics: The Impact of Vague Legislation on Policy

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781529200201
eISBN:
9781529200225
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781529200201.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter examines how Parliament's use of language affects individual rights. Focusing on cases pertaining to the Race Relations Act 1976 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 and the Employment Equality ... More


Reinventing Punishment: A Comparative History of Criminology and Penology in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Michele Pifferi

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198743217
eISBN:
9780191803079
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198743217.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

The book provides an historical analysis of the impact of criminology on the rationale of punishment and the sentencing systems in Europe and the United States between the 1870s and the 1930s. The ... More


The Tension between the Burden of Proof and Tort Law Objectives

Ariel Porat and Alex Stein

in Tort Liability Under Uncertainty

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198267973
eISBN:
9780191683435
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198267973.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Law of Obligations

This chapter examines the paradigmatic tort cases that feature the uncertainty problem or the problem of untraceable damage and indeterminate causation. The findings reveal that the discrete ... More


The Struggle over the Indeterminacy of Punishment in the United States (1870s to 1900s)

Michele Pifferi

in Reinventing Punishment: A Comparative History of Criminology and Penology in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198743217
eISBN:
9780191803079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198743217.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

The chapter analyses the history of the US indeterminate sentence system, from Brockway’s first proposal of 1870 and the opening of the Elmira Reformatory in 1876 to the rise of critiques in the ... More


15

Philip Gerard

in Down the Wild Cape Fear: A River Journey through the Heart of North Carolina

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9781469602073
eISBN:
9781469608136
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469602073.003.0016
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter shows that the route to the actual Cape Fear on Bald Head Island is circuitous and expensive. The cape, of course, is a shifty piece of real estate. In this part of the world, sand ... More


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