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Openness to Small Parties: The Micro‐Mega Rule and the Seat Product

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

The micro-mega rule says that for representation of small parties, it helps to have large assembly sizes, large district magnitudes, and large quotas or large gaps between divisors in seat allocation ... More


The Contingent Nature of National Business Systems: Types of States and Complementary Institutions

Richard Whitley

in Business Systems and Organizational Capabilities: The Institutional Structuring of Competitive Competences

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199205172
eISBN:
9780191709555
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199205172.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, Political Economy

This chapter discusses the four ideal types of states (arm's length, dominant developmental, business corporatist, and inclusive corporatist) that combine with particular features of allied ... More


The Dynamics of Democratization

John S. Dryzek, David Downes, Christian Hunold, David Schlosberg, and Hans‐Kristian Hernes

in Green States and Social Movements: Environmentalism in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199249022
eISBN:
9780191599095
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199249024.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

Social movements contribute to democracy and democratization. This chapter broadens the focus to democracy within society as a whole, civil society, and the public sphere as well as the state, and ... More


The Group Selection Controversy

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the notorious issue of group selection in behavioural ecology, one of the mainstays of the traditional levels of selection debate. The history of the group selection controversy ... More


Components of a Critical Pluralism: Ethics and Processes

David Schlosberg

in Environmental Justice and the New Pluralism: The Challenge of Difference for Environmentalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256419
eISBN:
9780191600203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256411.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

The acceptance of multiplicity as the precondition of political action is central to the new generation of theorists and activists that the author designates as ‘critical pluralists’. In political ... More


Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

James A.R. Marshall

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Social behavior has long puzzled evolutionary biologists, since the classical theory of natural selection maintains that individuals should not sacrifice their own fitness to affect that of others. ... More


Cities of Commerce: The Institutional Foundations of International Trade in the Low Countries, 1250-1650

Oscar Gelderblom

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691142883
eISBN:
9781400848591
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691142883.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This book develops a model of institutional change in European commerce based on urban competition. Cities continuously competed with each other by adapting commercial, legal, and fin ancial ... More


Heritability, Maximization, and Evolutionary Explanations

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines which of the equivalent alternative partitions of fitness, including inclusive fitness and group fitness, can be interpreted as being subject to natural selection in a ... More


Brass Tacks in Linguistic Theory: Innate Grammatical Principles

Stephen Crain, Andrea Gualmini, and Paul Pietroski

in The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195179675
eISBN:
9780199869794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179675.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter presents detailed empirical work on several aspects of children's linguistic performance, focusing in particular on evidence that even two-year-old children understand that the meanings ... More


Democratic Reason: Politics, Collective Intelligence, and the Rule of the Many

Hélène Landemore

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155654
eISBN:
9781400845538
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155654.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

Individual decision making can often be wrong due to misinformation, impulses, or biases. Collective decision making, on the other hand, can be surprisingly accurate. This book demonstrates that the ... More


Constitutional Goods

Alan Brudner

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199225798
eISBN:
9780191706516
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199225798.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

Most constitutional theorists have despaired of a liberal consensus on the fundamental goals of constitutional order. Instead they have contented themselves with agreement on lower-level principles ... More


The Practice of Principle: In Defence of a Pragmatist Approach to Legal Theory

Jules Coleman

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199264124
eISBN:
9780191707698
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199264124.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This book expands the argument introduced in the Clarendon Lectures in Law presented at Oxford University in the fall of 1998. It introduces and attempts to sustain two different kinds of arguments; ... More


Contemporary fathering: Theory, policy and practice

Brid Featherstone

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861349880
eISBN:
9781447301974
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861349880.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

Since 1997, child-welfare services have been faced with new demands to engage fathers or develop father-inclusive services. This book emerges from work by the author as a researcher and educator over ... More


Social Behavior and Evolutionary Thought

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This book demonstrates the generality of inclusive fitness theory, with particular emphasis on its fundamental evolutionary logic. It presents the basic mathematical theory of natural selection and ... More


Inclusive Fitness and Hamilton’s Rule

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines how the logic of inclusive fitness theory can be mathematically formalized using the Price equation, and how that formalization can be used to derive Hamilton's rule in its ... More


Conditional Behaviors and Inclusive Fitness

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines social behaviors that are expressed conditional on the phenotype of others. David Queller argued that inclusive fitness analyses need to be done on a per-behavior basis, citing ... More


What Is Fitness?

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers the problem of correctly defining fitness costs and benefits in inclusive fitness theory, when competition occurs between offspring who are relatives. It reviews the definition ... More


Evidence, Other Approaches, and Further Topics

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This book has examined the genesis, the logic, and the generality of social evolution theory. In particular, it has presented evolutionary explanations of the many social behaviors we observe in the ... More


Impartialist Cosmopolitanism

Toni Erskine

in Embedded Cosmopolitanism: Duties to Strangers and Enemies in a World of 'Dislocated Communities'

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264379
eISBN:
9780191734410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264379.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter discusses a detailed outline of the first point of opposition for an embedded cosmopolitan position, called ‘impartialist cosmopolitanism’. There are many works that have approached the ... More


Conclusion

Toni Erskine

in Embedded Cosmopolitanism: Duties to Strangers and Enemies in a World of 'Dislocated Communities'

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264379
eISBN:
9780191734410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264379.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This concluding chapter discusses the implications on the inclusive potential of a particularist route to ethical cosmopolitanism. It explores variations on the morally constitutive community and ... More


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