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Implicit Bias: A Better Metric for Racial Progress?

Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Robert W. Livingston, and Joshua Waytz

in The Obamas and a (Post) Racial America?

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199735204
eISBN:
9780199894581
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735204.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Given external pressures, people are sometimes unwilling to express their honest opinions about African Americans. Furthermore, because attitudes are often consciously inaccessible, people may also ... More


Black Man in the White House: Ideology and Implicit Racial Bias in the Age of Obama

Kristin A. Lane and John T. Jost

in The Obamas and a (Post) Racial America?

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199735204
eISBN:
9780199894581
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735204.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter discusses questions of racial bias and political ideology in the context of Barack Obama’s 2008 historical election and the first year of his presidency. In contrast to various claims ... More


Interpersonal Foundations of Ideological Thinking

Curtis D. Hardin, Rick M. Cheung, Michael W. Magee, Steven Noel, and Kasumi Yoshimura

in Ideology, Psychology, and Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199737512
eISBN:
9780199918638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199737512.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Building upon research on the social-cognitive foundations of ideological thinking, we argue that allegiance to attitudes that explain and justify the status quo is motivated in part by the human ... More


Bias, Feminism, and the Psychology of Investigating Gender

Alice H. Eagly

in Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199753628
eISBN:
9780199950027
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753628.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

Implicit judgmental biases compromise scientists' theories and research on the psychology of gender. One form of bias — social cognition — engages correspondent inference and the linked principle of ... More


Gendering At Work

Cecilia L. Ridgeway

in Framed by Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199755776
eISBN:
9780199894925
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199755776.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Chapter 4 describes how the effects of gender stereotypes on social relations (Chapter 3) reproduce gender inequality in paid work. The gender frame interacts with the institutional frame of work ... More


Implicit Jury Bias: Are Informational Interventions Effective?

Anna Roberts

in Criminal Juries in the 21st Century: Psychological Science and the Law

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780190658113
eISBN:
9780190658144
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190658113.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

The purpose of this chapter is to consider whether educational methods are—or could be—an effective way of tackling the implicit jury biases that threaten the fairness of trials. First, the chapter ... More


Implicit Bias, Stereotype Threat, and Women in Philosophy

Jennifer Saul

in Women in Philosophy: What Needs to Change?

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199325603
eISBN:
9780199369317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199325603.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General

There is by now a well-established body of research in psychology showing that human beings are strongly influenced by a range of unconscious biases and dispositions related to categories like race, ... More


The Heterogeneity of Implicit Bias

Jules Holroyd and Joseph Sweetman

in Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198713241
eISBN:
9780191781698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713241.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The term ‘implicit bias’ has been rapidly incorporated into philosophical discourse. This chapter scrutinizes the phenomena that fall under the rubric of implicit bias. The term is often used in a ... More


Implicit Bias, Character, and Control

Jules Holroyd and Daniel Kelly

in From Personality to Virtue: Essays on the Philosophy of Character

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780198746812
eISBN:
9780191809088
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198746812.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Are implicit biases under an agent’s control, and attributable to her as part of her character? A number of theorists have argued that individuals do not have control, in the relevant sense, over the ... More


Who’s Responsible for This?: Moral Responsibility, Externalism, and Knowledge about Implicit Bias

Natalia Washington and Daniel Kelly

in Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198766179
eISBN:
9780191820748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198766179.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The central claim we defend is that people can be responsible for actions that are influenced by implicit biases they do not know they have, and would disavow if they did. We frame this issue in ... More


Attributability, Accountability, and Implicit Bias

Robin Zheng

in Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198766179
eISBN:
9780191820748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198766179.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter distinguishes between two concepts of moral responsibility. We are responsible for our actions in the first sense only when those actions reflect our identities as moral agents, i.e. ... More


Implicit Bias, Responsibility, and Moral Ecology

Manuel R. Vargas

in Oxford Studies in Agency and Responsibility Volume 4

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780198805601
eISBN:
9780191843563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805601.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

There are reasons that weigh both in favor and against judging agents blameworthy for actions produced in part by implicit biases. Indeed, perhaps implicit bias reveals that our received views about ... More


Playing Double: Implicit Bias, Dual Levels, and Self-Control

Keith Frankish

in Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198713241
eISBN:
9780191781698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713241.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter proposes a framework for thinking about implicit bias and how we can control it. It argues that systematic implicit bias is best thought of as a form of belief, which can conflict with ... More


Intent in Disparate Treatment Litigation

Ann C. McGinley

in Masculinity at Work: Employment Discrimination through a Different Lens

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780814796139
eISBN:
9780814764329
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814796139.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Employment Law

This chapter examines the intent requirement in proving disparate treatment under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. It identifies three possible definitions of intent: purpose-to-harm, causation, ... More


Context and the Ethics of Implicit Bias

Michael Brownstein

in Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198766179
eISBN:
9780191820748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198766179.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter considers the ethical ramifications of the effects of context on the activation and expression in behaviour of implicit biases. My central claim is that an ethics of implicit bias must ... More


A Virtue Ethics Response to Implicit Bias

Clea F. Rees

in Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198766179
eISBN:
9780191820748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198766179.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Virtue ethics faces two challenges based in ‘dual-process’ models which posit distinct systems for automatic and deliberative cognition. One promising response to the classic situationist challenge ... More


Philosophers Explicitly Associate Philosophy with Maleness: An Examination of Implicit and Explicit Gender Stereotypes in Philosophy

Laura Di Bella, Eleanor Miles, and Jennifer Saul

in Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198713241
eISBN:
9780191781698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713241.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter reports the results of several studies designed to explore the gender stereotypes that professional philosophers and philosophy students hold about philosophy. We found that both women ... More


Transforming Institutions: The Strategic and Ethical Dynamics of Commitment to Racial Equity

Richard L. Wood and Brad R. Fulton

in A Shared Future: Faith-Based Organizing for Racial Equity and Ethical Democracy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226305974
eISBN:
9780226306162
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226306162.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

This chapter offers a case study of one of the primary sponsors of faith-based community organizing in the United States, the PICO National Network. It analyzes the organizational dynamics underlying ... More


Discrimination Law, Equality Law, and Implicit Bias

Katya Hosking and Roseanne Russell

in Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198766179
eISBN:
9780191820748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198766179.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter explores the extent to which British law can address the effects of implicit bias, taking gender as its focus. It considers the direct and indirect discrimination provisions of the ... More


Jury Selection Can Effectively Identify Biased Jurors

Brian H. Bornstein and Edie Greene

in The Jury Under Fire: Myth, Controversy, and Reform

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2017
ISBN:
9780190201340
eISBN:
9780190201357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190201340.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

Various jury selection procedures strive to ensure the selection of fair and impartial jurors. But the questioning of prospective jurors, termed voir dire, often fails to deliver on the promise of ... More


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