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Moral Agent and Impartial Spectator

Gilbert Harman

in Explaining Value: and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198238041
eISBN:
9780191597626
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198238045.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

A standard objection to impartial spectator theories of morality is that they offer an aesthetic, critic‐centred conception of morality, and so cannot adequately account for moral motivation and the ... More


The Principle of Moral Impartiality

Athol Fitzgibbons

in Adam Smith's System of Liberty, Wealth, and Virtue: The Moral and Political Foundations of The Wealth of Nations

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198292883
eISBN:
9780191596247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198292880.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Discusses the character of Smith's moral philosophy, the meaning of the impartial spectator, and its intended scientific character.


Adam Smith

Alexander Broadie

in A History of Scottish Philosophy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748616275
eISBN:
9780748652471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748616275.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

The masterpieces of Adam Smith include The Theory of Moral Sentiments and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, the latter of which is based on the principle of the division ... More


The Making of The Theory of Moral Sentiments

Ian Simpson Ross

in The Life of Adam Smith

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198288213
eISBN:
9780191596827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198288212.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

The capstone of Smith's years as a professor was the publication of TMS as a direct challenge to the egoistic theories of Hobbes and Mandeville, and Rousseau. In defining what virtue is and why we ... More


The Second Skeptic: Adam Smith and the Visualization of Sympathy

Sonali Chakravarti

in Sing the Rage: Listening to Anger after Mass Violence

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780226119984
eISBN:
9780226120041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226120041.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

In his Theory of Moral Sentiments Adam Smith argues that while sympathy does not negate pain, it is the most comforting response citizens can receive from others, even when they express anger and ... More


As Seen by Others: Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments

Genevieve Lloyd

in Enlightenment Shadows

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199669561
eISBN:
9780191757013
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669561.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter addresses Adam Smith’s treatment of the interactions between sympathy and imagination in his Theory of Moral Sentiments. The discussion highlights Smith’s model of the ‘impartial ... More


Normative Argumentation

Jack Russell Weinstein

in Adam Smith's Pluralism: Rationality, Education, and the Moral Sentiments

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780300162530
eISBN:
9780300163759
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300162530.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter looks back at what has so far been argued in this book, namely that Smith moves from Aristotelian and analytic models of logic and reasoning to a more rhetorical approach. The chapter ... More


Sentimental Conviction: Rousseau’s Apologia and the Impartial Spectator

Adam Schoene

in Adam Smith and Rousseau: Ethics, Politics, Economics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781474422857
eISBN:
9781474445115
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474422857.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Where Adam Smith’s The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) extends the domain of spectatorship beyond the ocular realm and claims that we must become the impartial spectators of our own character and ... More


Smith: The Delusions of Self-love

Roger Crisp

in Sacrifice Regained: Morality and Self-Interest in British Moral Philosophy from Hobbes to Bentham

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198840473
eISBN:
9780191880131
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198840473.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter discusses the views on self-interest and morality of the Scottish Enlightenment philosopher Adam Smith (1723–90). Smith’s theory of sympathy is explained. The notion of the impartial ... More


Actors and Spectators: Rousseau’s Contribution to the Eighteenth-century Debate on Self-interest

Mark J. Hill

in Adam Smith and Rousseau: Ethics, Politics, Economics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781474422857
eISBN:
9781474445115
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474422857.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

A debate between virtuous self-interest and social morality emerged in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The historical narrative of these ideas has been touched on by others – such as Albert ... More


Hume and Smith on Sympathy, Approbation, and Moral Judgment

Geoffrey Sayre-McCord

in Sympathy: A History

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780199928873
eISBN:
9780190247195
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199928873.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

David Hume and Adam Smith are usually, and understandably, seen as developing very similar sentimentalist accounts of moral thought and practice. As similar as Hume’s and Smith’s accounts of moral ... More


One System, Many Motivations

Jack Russell Weinstein

in Adam Smith's Pluralism: Rationality, Education, and the Moral Sentiments

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780300162530
eISBN:
9780300163759
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300162530.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

The Theory of Moral Sentiments complementarily countered Mandeville's moral claims that virtue is the product of political manipulation, but for this, Smith also needed Shaftesbury's and Hutcheson's ... More


Four Rehabilitations of Conscience and Connection with Sentiment: Eighteenth Century

Richard Sorabji

in Moral Conscience through the Ages: Fifth Century BCE to the Present

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780199685547
eISBN:
9780191765704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199685547.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The reliance of conscience on custom was criticised by Montaigne, Hobbes and Locke. In the 18th century, Bishop Butler defended its authority with an argument which could have been borrowed by ... More


Spectating

Robin Holt

in Judgment and Strategy

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780199671458
eISBN:
9780191751158
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199671458.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy, Organization Studies

This chapter weaves Kant’s concept of reflective judgment into Adam Smith’s conception of an inner person he called ‘the impartial spectator’. Smith argues that all trade (of the amiable and hence ... More


Regard for Others

Avner Offer

in Capital Failure: Rebuilding Trust in Financial Services

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780198712220
eISBN:
9780191780752
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712220.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics, Economic Systems

Adam Smith rejected Mandeville’s invisible-hand doctrine of ‘private vices, publick benefits’. In The Theory of Moral Sentiments his model of the ‘impartial spectator’ is driven not by our sympathy ... More


The British Moral Tradition: Conscience

Ashraf H.A. Rushdy

in After Injury: A Historical Anatomy of Forgiveness, Resentment, and Apology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780190851972
eISBN:
9780190852009
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190851972.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter argues that British moralist philosophers of the eighteenth century—especially Joseph Butler and Adam Smith—developed a model of what resentment as a response to injury was, what it ... More


But Is It True?

Joseph E. Uscinski and Joseph M. Parent

in American Conspiracy Theories

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199351800
eISBN:
9780190203955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199351800.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Given that most people believe in one conspiracy theory or another, this chapter examines how tethered to truth those beliefs are. It first explains why conspiracy theories are hard to disprove and ... More


The Best Expression of Welfarism 1

Christian Coons

in Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics: Volume 2

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199662951
eISBN:
9780191745195
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662951.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Welfarism is a general view about value and the foundations of morality: it is the view that only well-being is intrinsically valuable, and nothing but well-being matters, basically or ultimately, ... More


Our Obligation to Future Generations

Amartya Sen

in Capitalism Beyond Mutuality?: Perspectives Integrating Philosophy and Social Science

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780198825067
eISBN:
9780191863745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198825067.003.0007
Subject:
Business and Management, Corporate Governance and Accountability, Political Economy

Our reasoned sense of obligations to others can arise from at least three possible sources: cooperation, having caused harm, and effective power to improve suffering. The last source, this chapter ... More


The Role of Interpersonal Comparisons in Moral Learning and the Sources of Recognition Respect: Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s amour-propre and Adam Smith’s Sympathy

Christel Fricke

in Adam Smith and Rousseau: Ethics, Politics, Economics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781474422857
eISBN:
9781474445115
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474422857.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

I inquire into Rousseau’s and Smith’s views on moral psychology and on the role of interaction for people’s moral development. The question is whether Smith’s account of sympathy and the origin of ... More


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