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The Theoretical and Practical Consequences of Variations in Effective Illegality

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0010
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter explores the distinctive configuration of the opiate market and heroin trade. It proposes a theoretical model of effective illegality that helps to explain the role of government in ... More


Professionalisation, new social movements and voluntary action in the 1960s and 1970s

Virginia Berridge and Alex Mold

in The Ages of Voluntarism: How we got to the Big Society

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264829
eISBN:
9780191754036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264829.003.0006
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter explores the heightened professionalism of the voluntary sector as it adapted to the emergence of a new form of activist, as a way of analysing the utility of different methodological ... More


The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

Heroin is universally considered the world's most harmful illegal drug. This is due not only to the damaging effects of the drug itself, but also to the spread of AIDS tied to its use. Burgeoning ... More


Rethinking America’s Illegal Drug Policy

John J. Donohue III, Benjamin Ewing, and David Peloquin

in Controlling Crime: Strategies and Tradeoffs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226115122
eISBN:
9780226115139
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226115139.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter begins with an overview of America's illegal drug problem, sketching consumption patterns, current policy, and the social costs of illegal drugs under America's basic regime of ... More


The Role of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission: Confronting the Problem of Illegal Drugs in the Americas

Betty Horwitz

in Drug Trafficking, Organized Crime, and Violence in the Americas Today

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780813060682
eISBN:
9780813050935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813060682.003.0018
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter studies the role of The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) and its impact on drug policy. The work provides an exhaustive analysis of the evolution of CICAD and how ... More


Drug Business and Crime

Marcelo Bergman

in More Money, More Crime: Prosperity and Rising Crime in Latin America

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780190608774
eISBN:
9780190608804
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190608774.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Economic Sociology

This chapter studies illegal drugs, that have created the most profitable of all illicit markets. It, analyzes this industry within the broader framework of the book, which examines the effects these ... More


Maternal–Fetal Conflict

Bonnie Steinbock

in Life Before Birth: The Moral and Legal Status of Embryos and Fetuses

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195341621
eISBN:
9780199897131
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341621.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Certain behaviors during pregnancy can harm the developing fetus in utero. In some states, if the woman’s behavior during pregnancy causes her to miscarry, have a stillbirth, or have a child with ... More


Conclusion

Rachel St. John

in Line in the Sand: A History of the Western U.S.-Mexico Border

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141541
eISBN:
9781400838639
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141541.003.0009
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

This concluding chapter argues that the power imbalance between the United States and Mexico has been reflected in the politics of border control. Although U.S. and Mexican officials continued to ... More


Illegal drugs: two worlds of authority

Andreas Raschzok

in On the Road to Permissiveness?: Change and Convergence of Moral Regulation in Europe

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780198743989
eISBN:
9780191803987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198743989.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter deals with the regulation of the demand for illegal drugs. The analysis of drug regulation in nineteen European countries between 1960 and 2010 shows that two ‘worlds of authority’ ... More


Illegal Drugs as a National Security Threat: Securitization of Drugs in the U.S. Official Discourse

Yulia Vorobyeva

in Drug Trafficking, Organized Crime, and Violence in the Americas Today

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780813060682
eISBN:
9780813050935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813060682.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

The chapter examines the process of securitizing drugs in the United States as a major national security threat. The work uses discourse analysis to examine the evolution of the perception of drugs ... More


Children, crime and illegal drug use

Lisa O'Malley and Sharon Grace

in The well-being of children in the UK

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781847428370
eISBN:
9781447304005
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781847428370.003.0012
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families

This chapter summarizes trends and data about how much crime is committed by children in England and Wales. It explores the types of crimes that are committed with a particular focus on illegal drug ... More


Supply control for illegal markets

Thomas F. Babor, Jonathan Caulkins, Benedikt Fischer, David Foxcroft, Keith Humphreys, María Elena Medina-Mora, Isidore Obot, Jürgen Rehm, Peter Reuter, Robin Room, Ingeborg Rossow, and John Strang

in Drug Policy and the Public Good

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198818014
eISBN:
9780191859410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198818014.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Supply control approaches to drug problems focus on the production, distribution, and sale of illicit psychoactive substances, and include alternative development programmes in producer nations, ... More


Criminalization and decriminalization of drug possession

Thomas F. Babor, Jonathan Caulkins, Benedikt Fischer, David Foxcroft, Keith Humphreys, María Elena Medina-Mora, Isidore Obot, Jürgen Rehm, Peter Reuter, Robin Room, Ingeborg Rossow, and John Strang

in Drug Policy and the Public Good

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198818014
eISBN:
9780191859410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198818014.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Research suggests that punishing drug users has some limitations as a major component of drug policy. An increasing number of countries and sub-national jurisdictions have therefore been reducing ... More


Early Restrictions on Drug Speech, 1900–1956

Stephen Siff

in Acid Hype: American News Media and the Psychedelic Experience

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252039195
eISBN:
9780252097232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252039195.003.0002
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter discusses the media's contribution to America's naiveté about illegal drugs—heroin, cocaine, marijuana—and drug effects before psychedelic drugs were introduced. Until the 1960s, ... More


The Same Money?: Locating the Entrepreneurial Habitus

Dick Hobbs

in Lush Life: Constructing Organized Crime in the UK

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199668281
eISBN:
9780191760563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199668281.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter discusses how changes in the global drug market have eroded the links between traditional criminal territories and the cultures they spawned. Women exemplify these changes to criminal ... More


The Caribbean Police Commissioner

Ben Bowling

in Policing the Caribbean: Transnational Security Cooperation in Practice

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199577699
eISBN:
9780191702259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577699.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter discusses the establishment and hierarchy amongst the police forces in the Caribbean region. This chapter also explains how police commissions in the region are regarded as legacies from ... More


Introducing LSD, 1953–1956

Stephen Siff

in Acid Hype: American News Media and the Psychedelic Experience

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252039195
eISBN:
9780252097232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252039195.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter studies the dramatic appearance of LSD on the news agenda in reports on scientific studies using drugs to simulate madness, and the concurrent discussion of mystical, mind-expanding drug ... More


The Drug War: From Vision to Vice

Nona Willis Aronowitz

in The Essential Ellen Willis

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816681204
eISBN:
9781452949048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816681204.003.0028
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter examines the ideological assault on psychedelic drugs. These days drugs are a metaphor not for freedom or ecstasy but for slavery and horror. It’s the “hard” drugs—especially heroin and ... More


The Drug War: From Vision to Vice

Ellen Willis

in No More Nice Girls: Countercultural Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816680795
eISBN:
9781452949000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816680795.003.0024
Subject:
Society and Culture, Cultural Studies

This chapter examines the ideological assault on psychedelic drugs. These days drugs are a metaphor not for freedom or ecstasy but for slavery and horror. It’s the “hard” drugs—especially heroin and ... More


The Drug War: Hell No, I Won’t Go

Ellen Willis

in No More Nice Girls: Countercultural Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816680795
eISBN:
9781452949000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816680795.003.0025
Subject:
Society and Culture, Cultural Studies

This chapter comments on the U.S. government’s war against drugs. To many people, especially people of color, making war on drugs means not taking it anymore, defending their lives and their children ... More


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