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Optimality Principles Apply to a Broad Range of Information Integration Problems in Perception and Action

Melchi M. Michel, Anne-Marie Brouwer, Robert A. Jacobs, and David C. Knill

in Sensory Cue Integration

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195387247
eISBN:
9780199918379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387247.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes two research projects that evaluated whether people's judgments are predicted by those of the standard ideal observer in more complex situations. The first project, conducted ... More


Ideal-Observer Models of Cue Integration

Michael S. Landy, Martin S. Banks, and David C. Knill

in Sensory Cue Integration

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195387247
eISBN:
9780199918379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387247.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter provides a general introduction to the field of cue combination from the perspective of optimal cue integration. It works through a number of qualitatively different problems and ... More


Comparisons and Comment

D. D. Raphael

in The Impartial Spectator: Adam Smith's Moral Philosophy

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199213337
eISBN:
9780191707544
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213337.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Smith's theory of the impartial spectator is superior to a recent theory with which it has been compared, Roderick Firth's ‘ideal observer’ theory of moral judgement. Smith's notion has also been ... More


Meta‐conceivability and Thought Experiments

Roy Sorensen

in The Architecture of the Imagination: New Essays on Pretence, Possibility, and Fiction

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199275731
eISBN:
9780191706103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199275731.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

A meta-conception is a hypothetical one. It answers a question by imagining someone (usually a more able conceiver) answering that question via an act of imagination. Thus, meta-conceptions stand to ... More


The Accidental Error Theorist

Richard Joyce

in Oxford Studies in Metaethics: Volume 6

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199606375
eISBN:
9780191729478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606375.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The moral error theorist faces many kinds of opposition. One kind of opponent offers an identity claim between moral properties and certain naturalistic properties (e.g., of the format “Goodness = ... More


Likelihoods and likelihood ratios

Thomas D. Wickens

in Elementary Signal Detection Theory

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195092509
eISBN:
9780199893812
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195092509.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Likelihoods — the probabilities treated as a function of their parameters — are a key concept in statistical decision theory. When applied to signal detection, they give a general method for ... More


The equal-variance Gaussian model

Thomas D. Wickens

in Elementary Signal Detection Theory

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195092509
eISBN:
9780199893812
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195092509.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes the simplest (and most used) signal-detection representation, based on the normal or Gaussian distribution, which distinguishes between sensitivity to a signal and bias of the ... More


Rationality and Disagreement

Russ Shafer-Landau

in Moral Realism: A Defence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199259755
eISBN:
9780191601835
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199259755.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Distinguishes two strands of the classic antirealist argument from moral disagreement. The first has it that the extent of actual disagreement provides the basis of an inference to best explanation ... More


The Accidental Error Theorist

Richard Joyce

in Essays in Moral Skepticism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198754879
eISBN:
9780191819865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198754879.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The moral error theorist faces many kinds of opposition. One kind of opponent offers an identity claim between moral properties and certain naturalistic properties (for example, “Goodness = N-ness”). ... More


Symmetry in Vision, Inside and Outside of the Laboratory

Zygmunt Pizlo, Yunfeng Li, Tadamasa Sawada, and Robert M. Steinman

in Making a Machine That Sees Like Us

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199922543
eISBN:
9780190228385
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199922543.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Vision

The abstract property called “symmetry” is both critical and ubiquitous in the world “out there.” Despite this fact, symmetry has never played a role in shape perception in the laboratory before we ... More


Responsible Agency

Manuel Vargas

in Building Better Beings: A Theory of Moral Responsibility

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199697540
eISBN:
9780191748851
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697540.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter considers whether moral considerations-responsive agency of the sort gestured at in chapters 5 and 6 is plausible. The chapter argues that standard Reasons approaches to responsible ... More


The role of probabilistic enhancement in phonologization

James Kirby

in Origins of Sound Change: Approaches to Phonologization

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199573745
eISBN:
9780191745249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573745.003.0011
Subject:
Linguistics, Phonetics / Phonology, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

This chapter argues for the role of probabilistic enhancement in phonologization through computational simulation of an ongoing sound change in Seoul Korean. Two challenges faced by a phonologization ... More


To Seize upon the Applause of the Heart

Dominic McIver Lopes

in Being for Beauty: Aesthetic Agency and Value

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198827214
eISBN:
9780191866098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827214.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The main argument for the network theory of aesthetic value is that it better explains the facts about aesthetic activity than does its rival, aesthetic hedonism. Aesthetic hedonism reduces aesthetic ... More


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