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Climate change in polar regions

David N. Thomas, G.E. (Tony) Fogg, Peter Convey, Christian H. Fritsen, Josep-Maria Gili, Rolf Gradinger, Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Keith Reid, and David W.H. Walton

in The Biology of Polar Regions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298112
eISBN:
9780191711640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298112.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The polar regions have undergone major changes in configuration of land masses and climate over millions of years. However, it is the geologically brief period beginning around 120,000 years before ... More


Icehouse Earth

Toby Tyrrell

in On Gaia: A Critical Investigation of the Relationship between Life and Earth

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691121581
eISBN:
9781400847914
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691121581.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter compares the life that evolution produced during the past cold and warm climates of long duration. The dominant climatic state of the last several million years has been ice ages. James ... More


The Ocean’s Memory of the Ice Ages: The Endless Cycles of Climate Change

Wolf H. Berger

in Ocean: Reflections on a Century of Exploration

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247789
eISBN:
9780520942547
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247789.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter discusses the discovery of the Great Ice Age, focusing on the ice-age memories of the ocean and ice-age fluctuations. It first introduces fundamental concepts regarding ... More


The Little Ice Age Crisis of the Ottoman Empire: A Conjuncture in Middle East Environmental History

Sam White

in Water on Sand: Environmental Histories of the Middle East and North Africa

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199768677
eISBN:
9780199979608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199768677.003.0003
Subject:
History, Middle East History

After centuries of conquest and expansion, the Ottoman Empire descended into crisis in the 1590s as a widespread uprising known as the Celali Rebellion ushered in decades of economic dislocation, ... More


Crop management in the classical and medieval periods

Denis J. Murphy

in People, Plants and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199207145
eISBN:
9780191708893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207145.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

The classical and medieval periods of 1800 BCE to 1500 CE were characterized by some limited technical innovation in agriculture, but little progress was made in crop improvement as global ... More


Once and Future Giants: What Ice Age Extinctions Tell Us About the Fate of Earth's Largest Animals

Sharon Levy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780195370126
eISBN:
9780190267766
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780195370126.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Until about 13,000 years ago, Europe and North America were home to a menagerie of massive mammals. Mammoths, camels, and lions walked the ground that has become our cities and streets. Then, just as ... More


Gaia and Glaciation: Lipalian (Vendian) Environmental Crisis

Mark A. S. McMenamin

in Scientists Debate Gaia: The Next Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262194983
eISBN:
9780262283182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262194983.003.0012
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

The Lipalian or Vendian Period, which occurred 600–541 million years ago, begins and ends with global environmental perturbations. It begins as the worst glaciation on record draws to a close. It ... More


A Framework for Understanding Environmental Change

David E. Anderson, Andrew S. Goudie, and Adrian G. Parker

in Global Environments through the Quaternary: Exploring Evironmental Change

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199697267
eISBN:
9780191810169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199697267.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter presents ideas that have evolved around the environmental changes in the world in the Quaternary period, or the last 2.6 million years. It recounts the discovery of the Ice Age and the ... More


Snowball earth? (1835–40)

in Worlds Before Adam: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226731285
eISBN:
9780226731308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226731308.003.0036
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The explanatory problems raised by erratics and scratched bedrock remained at the heart of debates about geohistory as a whole, because they impinged crucially on the problems of reconstructing the ... More


Setting the Stage

David J. Meltzer

in The Great Paleolithic War: How Science Forged an Understanding of America's Ice Age Past

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226293226
eISBN:
9780226293363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226293363.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

By the early 1800s Georges Cuvier had proven animal extinction and Louis Agassiz a onetime Ice Age, putting in place key elements for telling past time. A new dimension of archaeology opened in ... More


Climate wobbles

Tim Lenton and Andrew Watson

in Revolutions that made the Earth

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199587049
eISBN:
9780191775031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587049.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter shows how planetary cooling has culminated in a series of periodic glaciations of the Northern hemisphere – the recent ‘ice ages’ – which have become progressively longer and deeper. ... More


Origin of the Evergreen Forests

E. C. Pielou

in The World of Northern Evergreens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter addresses two questions that have engaged the interests of ecologists and motivated years of research: Where has the forest come from? And why are the great majority of its trees ... More


On Causality and Ice Age Deglaciations

Alexandre Casanovas and Vicent Gómez

in Scientists Debate Gaia: The Next Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262194983
eISBN:
9780262283182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262194983.003.0026
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the most important of several factors that influence ice ages—solar forcing. Others, such as ocean circulation, are consequences of uneven solar radiation. The complexity of ... More


Cute and Fuzzy Dinosaurs

Ray Zone

in 3-D Revolution: The History of Modern Stereoscopic Cinema

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780813136110
eISBN:
9780813141183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813136110.003.0033
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

The making of and world-wide boxoffice success of the 20th century Fox film Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs in 3D is analysed. The basis of its appeal and its international performance is discussed ... More


The Deicing of the North

Charles Officer and Jake Page

in A Fabulous Kingdom: The Exploration of the Arctic

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199837809
eISBN:
9780190267872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199837809.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines the factors that contribute to the deicing of Arctic, such as climate change, El Niño and La Niña, and the varying age of the ice. The Earth's average temperature is rising and ... More


Taking Stock for the Future (1840–45)

in Worlds Before Adam: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226731285
eISBN:
9780226731308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226731308.003.0037
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The narrative in this book has been brought to an end in the mid-1840s, with the arguments over glacial extension and the putative Ice Age still in full swing, as they would continue to be for many ... More


Prologue to History

Ruth H. Sanders

in The Languages of Scandinavia: Seven Sisters of the North

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226493893
eISBN:
9780226493923
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226493923.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

The earliest Modern humans settled around 8100 BC in the very far north of Fennoscandia, in northern Finnish Lapland, on the border with Norway. The settlers seem to have come from the Pontic steppes ... More


Amazonian Biogeography as a Test for Gaia

Axel Kleidon

in Scientists Debate Gaia: The Next Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262194983
eISBN:
9780262283182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262194983.003.0027
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the climatic conditions during the last ice age and how they were considerably different from today. The chapter starts by providing a quantifiable definition of “beneficial to ... More


Tedious Calculations of Extraordinary Interest

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0031
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter focuses on scientific endeavors to calculate how much radiation the carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere absorbs and so determine the effect of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide ... More


In the Line of Fire

Michael E. Mann

in The Hockey Stick and the Climate Wars: Dispatches from the Front Lines

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231152556
eISBN:
9780231526388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231152556.003.0007
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter explains how the hockey stick emerged as a fundamental icon in the assault against the scientific case for human-caused climate change after it was displayed in the IPCC Third Assessment ... More


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