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Climate change in polar regions

David N. Thomas, G.E. (Tony) Fogg, Peter Convey, Christian H. Fritsen, Josep-Maria Gili, Rolf Gradinger, Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Keith Reid, and David W.H. Walton

in The Biology of Polar Regions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298112
eISBN:
9780191711640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298112.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The polar regions have undergone major changes in configuration of land masses and climate over millions of years. However, it is the geologically brief period beginning around 120,000 years before ... More


Icehouse Earth

Toby Tyrrell

in On Gaia: A Critical Investigation of the Relationship between Life and Earth

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691121581
eISBN:
9781400847914
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691121581.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter compares the life that evolution produced during the past cold and warm climates of long duration. The dominant climatic state of the last several million years has been ice ages. James ... More


The Ocean’s Memory of the Ice Ages: The Endless Cycles of Climate Change

Wolf H. Berger

in Ocean: Reflections on a Century of Exploration

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247789
eISBN:
9780520942547
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247789.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter discusses the discovery of the Great Ice Age, focusing on the ice-age memories of the ocean and ice-age fluctuations. It first introduces fundamental concepts regarding ... More


The Little Ice Age Crisis of the Ottoman Empire: A Conjuncture in Middle East Environmental History

Sam White

in Water on Sand: Environmental Histories of the Middle East and North Africa

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199768677
eISBN:
9780199979608
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199768677.003.0003
Subject:
History, Middle East History

After centuries of conquest and expansion, the Ottoman Empire descended into crisis in the 1590s as a widespread uprising known as the Celali Rebellion ushered in decades of economic dislocation, ... More


And Then There Was Ice

Jorge Daniel Taillant

in Meltdown: The Earth Without Glaciers

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
December 2021
ISBN:
9780190080327
eISBN:
9780197578049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190080327.003.0002
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter introduces the basic definitions of a glacier and of the glaciosystem (a term coined by the author which refers to the glacier ecosystem). It describes glaciers, and through interactive ... More


Crop management in the classical and medieval periods

Denis J. Murphy

in People, Plants and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199207145
eISBN:
9780191708893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207145.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

The classical and medieval periods of 1800 BCE to 1500 CE were characterized by some limited technical innovation in agriculture, but little progress was made in crop improvement as global ... More


The Rising Seas

Jorge Daniel Taillant

in Meltdown: The Earth Without Glaciers

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
December 2021
ISBN:
9780190080327
eISBN:
9780197578049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190080327.003.0003
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter focuses on the impacts of glacier melt on our oceans and related sea level rise. It discusses past and present sea levels and the relative influence of the ice age cycles. The chapter ... More


Glaciers Are White, Oceans Are Blue, the Earth Is Warming, and So Are You!

Jorge Daniel Taillant

in Meltdown: The Earth Without Glaciers

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
December 2021
ISBN:
9780190080327
eISBN:
9780197578049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190080327.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the critical role glaciers play in reflecting solar heat back into space and how the melting of glaciers reveals darker land and water surfaces that leads to surface heat ... More


Setting the Stage

David J. Meltzer

in The Great Paleolithic War: How Science Forged an Understanding of America's Ice Age Past

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226293226
eISBN:
9780226293363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226293363.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

By the early 1800s Georges Cuvier had proven animal extinction and Louis Agassiz a onetime Ice Age, putting in place key elements for telling past time. A new dimension of archaeology opened in ... More


Snowball earth? (1835–40)

in Worlds Before Adam: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226731285
eISBN:
9780226731308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226731308.003.0036
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The explanatory problems raised by erratics and scratched bedrock remained at the heart of debates about geohistory as a whole, because they impinged crucially on the problems of reconstructing the ... More


Once and Future Giants: What Ice Age Extinctions Tell Us About the Fate of Earth's Largest Animals

Sharon Levy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780195370126
eISBN:
9780190267766
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780195370126.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Until about 13,000 years ago, Europe and North America were home to a menagerie of massive mammals. Mammoths, camels, and lions walked the ground that has become our cities and streets. Then, just as ... More


Gaia and Glaciation: Lipalian (Vendian) Environmental Crisis

Mark A. S. McMenamin

in Scientists Debate Gaia: The Next Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262194983
eISBN:
9780262283182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262194983.003.0012
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

The Lipalian or Vendian Period, which occurred 600–541 million years ago, begins and ends with global environmental perturbations. It begins as the worst glaciation on record draws to a close. It ... More


“Earth Trembled”: Paradise Lost, the Little Ice Age, and the Climate of Allegory

Tobias Menely

in Climate and the Making of Worlds: Toward a Geohistorical Poetics

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2022
ISBN:
9780226776149
eISBN:
9780226776316
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226776316.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, 18th-century Literature

In a reading of Milton’s Paradise Lost (1667), Chapter 1 proposes that the historiographic problem of recognizing climate as a causal force in society can be productively compared to the critical ... More


A Framework for Understanding Environmental Change

David E. Anderson, Andrew S. Goudie, and Adrian G. Parker

in Global Environments through the Quaternary: Exploring Evironmental Change

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199697267
eISBN:
9780191810169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199697267.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter presents ideas that have evolved around the environmental changes in the world in the Quaternary period, or the last 2.6 million years. It recounts the discovery of the Ice Age and the ... More


Climate wobbles

Tim Lenton and Andrew Watson

in Revolutions that made the Earth

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199587049
eISBN:
9780191775031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587049.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter shows how planetary cooling has culminated in a series of periodic glaciations of the Northern hemisphere – the recent ‘ice ages’ – which have become progressively longer and deeper. ... More


Origin of the Evergreen Forests

E. C. Pielou

in The World of Northern Evergreens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter addresses two questions that have engaged the interests of ecologists and motivated years of research: Where has the forest come from? And why are the great majority of its trees ... More


The Valkyries' Loom: The Archaeology of Cloth Production and Female Power in the North Atlantic

Michèle Hayeur Smith

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780813066622
eISBN:
9780813058771
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813066622.001.0001
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

In The Valkyries’ Loom, Michèle Hayeur Smith examines Viking textiles as evidence of the little-known work of women in the Norse colonies that expanded from Scandinavia across the North Atlantic in ... More


Climate and the Making of Worlds: Toward a Geohistorical Poetics

Tobias Menely

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2022
ISBN:
9780226776149
eISBN:
9780226776316
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226776316.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, 18th-century Literature

Climate and the Making of Worlds develops a materialist ecocriticism, tracking the imprint of the planetary across a long history of poetic rewritings and critical readings in which what is at stake ... More


Taking Stock for the Future (1840–45)

in Worlds Before Adam: The Reconstruction of Geohistory in the Age of Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226731285
eISBN:
9780226731308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226731308.003.0037
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The narrative in this book has been brought to an end in the mid-1840s, with the arguments over glacial extension and the putative Ice Age still in full swing, as they would continue to be for many ... More


Ice Age Humans (30,000 Years Ago)

Lesley Newson and Peter J. Richerson

in A Story of Us: A New Look at Human Evolution

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780190883201
eISBN:
9780197554821
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190883201.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Starting about 35,000 years ago, humans seem to have made a great leap forward culturally. The authors argue that this wasn’t because of genetic changes that caused the human brain to have increased ... More


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