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‘Victory with Vaccines’: Human Guinea-pigs and Louse-feeders

Paul Julian Weindling

in Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206910
eISBN:
9780191677373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.003.0046
Subject:
History, European Modern History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Developing a typhus vaccine was to boost Germany's medical and racial defences. Given that typhus was a primitive ‘Asiatic’ disease spread by racial vermin, an effective vaccine was required to ... More


Formalizing Responses to Research Hazards

Sydney A. Halpern

in Lesser Harms: The Morality of Risk in Medical Research

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226314518
eISBN:
9780226314532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226314532.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

Between the mid-1930s and mid-1950s, a discernable shift took place in the organizational management of research hazards. Of the three approaches to research risks adopted by organizational ... More


Research Sponsors and the Culture of Risk

Sydney A. Halpern

in Lesser Harms: The Morality of Risk in Medical Research

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226314518
eISBN:
9780226314532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226314532.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

In the field of vaccine testing, organizational support for human trials was quite common in the United States, even as early as the 1930s. A diverse array of agencies provided resources for the ... More


Moral Traditions in an Era of Government Oversight

Sydney A. Halpern

in Lesser Harms: The Morality of Risk in Medical Research

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226314518
eISBN:
9780226314532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226314532.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

In the United States, human-subjects researchers conform to regulatory codes administered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP). The FDA ... More


The Origins of a Moral Logic of Risk

Sydney A. Halpern

in Lesser Harms: The Morality of Risk in Medical Research

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226314518
eISBN:
9780226314532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226314532.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

Medical research communities have longstanding traditions for handling the risks that human experiments entail. A cornerstone of these traditions is the logic of lesser harms, whereby hazardous ... More


The Social Nature of Moral Action

Sydney A. Halpern

in Lesser Harms: The Morality of Risk in Medical Research

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226314518
eISBN:
9780226314532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226314532.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

Social control of human experimentation in the United States can be thought of as having three distinct phases. In the first, extending through the early decades of the twentieth century, oversight ... More


Negotiating Moral Boundaries: The Polio Vaccines of 1934–1935

Sydney A. Halpern

in Lesser Harms: The Morality of Risk in Medical Research

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226314518
eISBN:
9780226314532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226314532.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

Sociologists consider the problem group, or research network, to be the basic unit in the organization of scientific work. Members of these networks are bearers and adjudicators of moral traditions ... More


US Nuclear Tests, the Environment, and Medical Research: Case Studies of the Rongelapese and Utirikese

Martha Smith-Norris

in Domination and Resistance: The United States and the Marshall Islands during the Cold War

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824847623
eISBN:
9780824869014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824847623.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Pacific Studies

Chapter Three focusses on the human and ecological consequences of American Cold War policies on the Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. In particular, it concentrates on the effects of the 1954 Bravo ... More


Contested Medicine: Cancer Research and the Military

Gerald Kutcher

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226465319
eISBN:
9780226465333
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226465333.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In the 1960s, University of Cincinnati radiologist Eugene Saenger infamously conducted human experiments on patients with advanced cancer to examine how total body radiation could treat the disease. ... More


Domination and Resistance: The United States and the Marshall Islands during the Cold War

Martha Smith-Norris

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824847623
eISBN:
9780824869014
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824847623.001.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Pacific Studies

This book is about domination and resistance in the Pacific during the Cold War. In the race against the Soviet Union for nuclear supremacy, the United States tested a vast array of nuclear bombs and ... More


Ethical Judgment

in Contested Medicine: Cancer Research and the Military

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226465319
eISBN:
9780226465333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226465333.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter follows in detail Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE)'s deliberations in the Eugene Saenger case. President Bill Clinton created the ACHRE to assess the history of ... More


Industrious Anxiety: Labor and Landscapes of Modernity in Dalian

Yukiko Koga

in Inheritance of Loss: China, Japan, and the Political Economy of Redemption After Empire

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226411941
eISBN:
9780226412276
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226412276.003.0005
Subject:
Anthropology, Asian Cultural Anthropology

Chapter 5 examines the latent anxiety about modernity inherent in excess produced by the political economy of redemption. Looking at Dalian’s postgenerations, it examines the double usage of the ... More


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