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Protecting Vulnerable Human Subjects in Research

Adil E. Shamoo and David B. Resnik

in Responsible Conduct of Research

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195368246
eISBN:
9780199867615
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368246.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter discusses ethical issues and policies relating to the protection of vulnerable subjects in research. It reviews the history of human experimentation with vulnerable human subjects such ... More


Human Experimentation in the Eighteenth Century: Natural Boundaries and Valid Testing

Londa Schiebinger

in The Moral Authority of Nature

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226136806
eISBN:
9780226136820
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226136820.003.0016
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explores how drugs were tested in the eighteenth century, looking specifically at how human subjects were chosen for experiments, and at notions of uniformity and variability across ... More


Conclusion: Death and Other Frontiers

Vanessa Heggie

in Higher and Colder: A History of Extreme Physiology and Exploration

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780226650883
eISBN:
9780226650913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226650913.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter considers the ethical challenges of experimentation in expeditionary biomedical science. Looking at the bodies used in such experimental work—often including those of indigenous peoples ... More


Chemical Carrot, Chemical Whip

Geoffrey Campbell Cocks

in The State of Health: Illness in Nazi Germany

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199695676
eISBN:
9780191738616
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695676.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

A commercial and consumer society began emerging in Germany before the First World War, and the German chemical and pharmaceutical industry was the most advanced in the world. By 1933, therefore, ... More


Human Subjects in Globalized Health Research

Andrés Constantin and Roberto Andorno

in Foundations of Global Health & Human Rights

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2020
ISBN:
9780197528297
eISBN:
9780197528334
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197528297.003.0019
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

The clinical trials enterprise has expanded globally, involving research developed and owned by research institutions in wealthy countries but conducted with participants in low- and middle-income ... More


Experimentation

Emma Newlands

in Civilians into soldiers: War, the body and British Army recruits, 1939-45

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780719088049
eISBN:
9781781707869
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719088049.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter explores the medical and scientific experiments that were conducted on army personnel between 1939 and 1945. These included trials of therapeutic drugs, synthetic stimulants and exposure ... More


Trauma, Memory, and Euthanasia at the Nuremberg Medical Trial, 1946–1947

Etienne Lepicard

in Trauma and Memory: Reading, Healing, and Making Law

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804754057
eISBN:
9780804768122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804754057.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter is concerned with the “lapse in memory” during the Nuremberg Medical Trials (NMTs). It presents an interpretation of three major early reports of the trial and their roles in memory ... More


Higher and Colder: A History of Extreme Physiology and Exploration

Vanessa Heggie

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780226650883
eISBN:
9780226650913
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226650913.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The twentieth century saw humans going in unprecedented numbers to some of the most extreme environments on earth; setting foot for the first time at the north pole, south pole, and the summit of ... More


Situating Research ethics: Revisiting Beecher and Jonas

Franklin G. Miller

in The Ethical Challenges of Human Research: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199896202
eISBN:
9780190267681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199896202.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter situates the emergence of research ethics and regulation with a critical examination of two seminal papers published during the 1960s: Henry Beecher's whistle-blower account of ... More


Atomic Tracings:: Radioisotopes in Biology and Medicine

Angela N. H. Creager

in Science and Technology in the Global Cold War

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262027953
eISBN:
9780262326100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027953.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The U.S. government developed atomic energy for peacetime after World War II in the form of radioactive isotopes, produced in a former Manhattan Project reactor and distributed to civilian ... More


Biology and Ideology from Descartes to Dawkins

Denis R. Alexander and Ronald L. Numbers (eds)

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226608402
eISBN:
9780226608426
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226608426.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Over the course of human history, the sciences in general and biology in particular have often been manipulated to cause immense human suffering. For example, biology has been used to justify eugenic ... More


Monstrous Science: Racial Resettlement, Human Experiments, and the Holocaust

Eric Kurlander

in Hitler's Monsters: A Supernatural History of the Third Reich

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780300189452
eISBN:
9780300190373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300189452.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter illustrates the ways in which science and the supernatural intersected in the Third Reich's approach to anti-Semitism, human experimentation, and ethnic cleansing. Certainly, the Nazi ... More


Hope for Cures: Nature or Science

Guenter B. Risse

in Driven by Fear: Epidemics and Isolation in San Francisco's House of Pestilence

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252039843
eISBN:
9780252097959
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252039843.003.0009
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter documents the efforts of the nineteenth-century medical community in the search for better cures and means of treatment for patients suffering from loathsome diseases. Fuzzy professional ... More


Brain Science under the Swastika: Ethical Violations, Resistance, and Victimization of Neuroscientists in Nazi Europe

Lawrence A. Zeidman

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780198728634
eISBN:
9780191882951
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198728634.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

Eighty years ago the greatest mass murder of human beings of all time occurred in Nazi occupied Europe. This began with the mass extermination of patients with neurologic and psychiatric disorders ... More


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