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Dynamic Decision Theory and Probabilistic Information Processing

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews ideas and work done or in progress which seem to indicate where basic research on human decision processes is going. These ideas have two closely related foci: dynamic decision ... More


The Simple Art of Voting: The Cognitive Shortcuts of Italian Voters

Delia Baldassarri

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199828241
eISBN:
9780199979783
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199828241.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

Voting distills a complex decision into a deceptively simple action. The electorate faces a messy tangle of parties, leaders, and issues. How is it possible for voters to unravel it all? How do they ... More


On determinacy or its absence in the brain

HARALD ATMANSPACHER and STEFAN ROTTER

in Free Will and Modern Science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264898
eISBN:
9780191754074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264898.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter analyzes the different ways to describe brain behaviour with the goal to provide a basis for an informed discussion of the nature of decisions and actions that humans perform in their ... More


Framing Effects

Jamie Terence Kelly

in Framing Democracy: A Behavioral Approach to Democratic Theory

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155197
eISBN:
9781400845545
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155197.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter introduces the phenomenon of framing. More specifically, it shows why the fact that human decisions are not invariant over equivalent formulations of the same decision problem ought to ... More


Human Decision Making and Heuristics of Judgment

Delia Baldassarri

in The Simple Art of Voting: The Cognitive Shortcuts of Italian Voters

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199828241
eISBN:
9780199979783
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199828241.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

Chapter 2 introduces the conceptual developments of the research on human decision making, an important instrument for understanding how individuals make choices in complex situations characterized ... More


Modelling biodiversity and ecosystem services in coupled ecological–economic systems

William A. Brock, David Finnoff, Ann P. Kinzig, Unai Pascual, Charles Perrings, John Tschirhart, and Anastasios Xepapadeas

in Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing: An Ecological and Economic Perspective

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199547951
eISBN:
9780191720345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547951.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter considers how economists model biodiversity in coupled social ecological systems, taking two polar cases along with a more general problem. Economists assume that all human decisions are ... More


Political Cognitivism: A Defense

Hélène Landemore

in Democratic Reason: Politics, Collective Intelligence, and the Rule of the Many

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155654
eISBN:
9781400845538
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155654.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter offers a defense of one of the main and most controversial assumptions on which the epistemic case for democracy relies, namely that there exists a procedure-independent standard of ... More


Voting: An Individual and Reasoned Choice

Delia Baldassarri

in The Simple Art of Voting: The Cognitive Shortcuts of Italian Voters

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199828241
eISBN:
9780199979783
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199828241.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Politics, Social Movements and Social Change

Chapter 1 draws a profile of the voter as decision maker, the protagonist of a choice. Voting is argued to be a nonrandom yet notdetermined, individual, and reasoned choice. The chapter confronts the ... More


Era IV—The Anthrocene Age

Jan G. Laitos

in The Right of Nonuse

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195386066
eISBN:
9780199949656
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195386066.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law

This chapter discusses the fourth era of resource use and nonuse—the Anthrocene Age. Era IV may be called the Anthrocene Age because of the prominent role played by human anthropogenic decisions. Era ... More


Achieving Coherence: Meeting New Cognitive Demands in Technological Systems

Kathleen L. Mosier and Shane T. McCauley

in Adaptive Perspectives on Human–Technology Interaction: Methods and Models for Cognitive Engineering and Human-Computer Interaction

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195374827
eISBN:
9780199847693
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374827.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter provides a new dimension to the discussion of technology-mediated interaction, drawing on Kenneth Hammond's distinction between correspondence- and coherence-based cognition. ... More


Why the Compatibilism Issue and the Conceptual-Analysis Issue Are Metaphysically Irrelevant

Mark Balaguer

in Free Will as an Open Scientific Problem

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013543
eISBN:
9780262258548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013543.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The problem of free will has been linked to the debate about whether compatibilism is true. This chapter argues that the question of whether compatibilism is true has no relevance to metaphysical ... More


Why There Are No Good Arguments for or against Determinism (or Any Other Thesis That Would Establish or Refute Libertarianism)

Mark Balaguer

in Free Will as an Open Scientific Problem

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013543
eISBN:
9780262258548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013543.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter contends that there are no good arguments, empirical or a priori, for or against determinism and TDW-indeterminism, and, more specifically, shows that the question of whether ... More


Innovation, Replicative Behavior, and Evolvability: Contributions from Neuroscience and Human Decision-Making Theory

Daniel O. Larson

in Innovation in Cultural Systems: Contributions from Evolutionary Anthropology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013338
eISBN:
9780262259101
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013338.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter argues that human cognitive processes and brain functions have evolved from a shared common history of natural selection under varying social and natural pressures. It addresses the ... More


Biodiversity and Community Composition in Urban Ecosystems: Coupled Human, Spatial, and Metacommunity Processes

Christopher M. Swan, Steward T. A. Pickett, Katalin Szlavecz, Paige Warren, and K. Tara Willey

in Urban Ecology: Patterns, Processes, and Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199563562
eISBN:
9780191774713
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563562.003.0021
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Urban ecosystems present ecologists with the unique opportunity to study ecological communities in the context of drastic structural and environmental change unprecedented in pristine environments. ... More


Moving Away from Silent Trepidation: Changing the Discussion of Rationing and Resource Allocation

Marion Danis, Greer Donley, and Reidun Førde

in Fair Resource Allocation and Rationing at the Bedside

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199989447
eISBN:
9780190207489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199989447.003.0023
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter considers whether it is possible to have constructive discussions in the public arena and the clinical encounter about rationing and resource allocation. Although there is variation from ... More


AI and Decision-Making

Jess Whittlestone

in Future Morality

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
October 2021
ISBN:
9780198862086
eISBN:
9780191927195
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198862086.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

This chapter assesses how advances in artificial intelligence (AI) can help us address the biggest global challenges we face today. Psychology research has painted a pessimistic picture of human ... More


Conclusion

J.D. Trout

in Wondrous Truths: The Improbable Triumph of Modern Science

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199385072
eISBN:
9780199385102
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199385072.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

Taking seriously the liberating themes of scientific progress in this book, the closing chapter looks at a truly scientific and evidence-based approach to policymaking. But it begins with comi-tragic ... More


Boundaries, Conventions, and Realism

Achille C. Varzi

in Carving Nature at Its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015936
eISBN:
9780262298780
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015936.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses the important distinction between artificial boundaries and natural boundaries. Artificial boundaries, such as national and state borders, are defined as boundaries that are ... More


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