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The Income Concept

Fred Campano and Dominick Salvatore

in Income Distribution: Includes CD

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195300918
eISBN:
9780199783441
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195300912.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The definition of income in developed and developing countries is introduced. The use of household sample surveys to gather information on income distribution is discussed as well as the derived ... More


Measuring Everyday Perceptions of the Distribution of the American Electorate

Charles M. Judd, Leaf Van Boven, Michaela Huber, and Ana P. Nunes

in Improving Public Opinion Surveys: Interdisciplinary Innovation and the American National Election Studies

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151458
eISBN:
9781400840298
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151458.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter investigates perceptions of policy and partisan polarization through the use of an interactive histogram procedure (in which respondents were asked to raise and lower bars to reflect ... More


Distributions of data—four plots

Steve Selvin

in The Joy of Statistics: A Treasury of Elementary Statistical Tools and their Applications

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780198833444
eISBN:
9780191872280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833444.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Applied Mathematics

An introduction to four graphic statistical descriptions, namely histograms, stem-leaf plots, frequency polygons, and frequency distributions.


Boxplots—construction and interpretation

Steve Selvin

in The Joy of Statistics: A Treasury of Elementary Statistical Tools and their Applications

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780198833444
eISBN:
9780191872280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198833444.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Applied Mathematics

The boxplot is a useful and unique statistical technique used to describe visually the properties of data in a large variety of situations.


Statistical Stability of Chaos

David P. Feldman

in Chaos and Fractals: An Elementary Introduction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199566433
eISBN:
9780191774966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566433.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Sensitive dependence on initial conditions makes it difficult to predict chaotic systems in the long term, as two initial conditions that begin close to each other rapidly get pushed apart. This ... More


The Bell Curve Takes Shape

Steven J. Osterlind

in The Error of Truth: How History and Mathematics Came Together to Form Our Character and Shape Our Worldview

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780198831600
eISBN:
9780191869532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198831600.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter tells how quantification as an idea in spirit is moving across the Atlantic to the new country of the United States, and its relevance to the signing of the Declaration of Independence. ... More


Descriptive statistics

Andrew Gelman and Deborah Nolan

in Teaching Statistics: A Bag of Tricks

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198785699
eISBN:
9780191827518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198785699.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, Educational Mathematics

Descriptive statistics is the typical starting point for a statistics course, and it can be tricky to teach because the material is more difficult than it first appears. The activities in this ... More


Visualizing Your Data

Andrew P. Beckerman, Dylan Z. Childs, and Owen L. Petchey

in Getting Started with R: An Introduction for Biologists

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780198787839
eISBN:
9780191829659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198787839.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

Looking at your data is about the most important thing you can do. A good graph will often tell you the answer to your question, and statistics will then just confirm what you already see. We always ... More


Advanced Monte Carlo methods

Michael P. Allen and Dominic J. Tildesley

in Computer Simulation of Liquids: Second Edition

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780198803195
eISBN:
9780191841439
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198803195.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

This chapter describes the ways in which the Monte Carlo importance sampling method may be adapted to improve the calculation of ensemble averages, particularly those associated with free energy ... More


Descriptive Analysis

Peter Miksza and Kenneth Elpus

in Design and Analysis for Quantitative Research in Music Education

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780199391905
eISBN:
9780199391943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199391905.003.0004
Subject:
Music, Theory, Analysis, Composition, Performing Practice/Studies

Descriptive statistics allow researchers to use numbers to begin to tell the stories that exist in their data. This chapter presents an overview of the basic statistical tools researchers can use to ... More


An Empirical Comparison

Thomas Bäck

in Evolutionary Algorithms in Theory and Practice: Evolution Strategies, Evolutionary Programming, Genetic Algorithms

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195099713
eISBN:
9780197560921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195099713.003.0009
Subject:
Computer Science, Systems Analysis and Design

Given the discussions about Evolutionary Algorithms from the previous chapters, we shall now apply them to the artificial topologies just presented. This will be done by simply running the ... More


Statistics for the Quality Control Laboratory

D. Brynn Hibbert

in Quality Assurance in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162127
eISBN:
9780197562093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162127.003.0006
Subject:
Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry

Because volumes are devoted to the statistics of data analysis in the analytical laboratory (indeed, I recently authored one [Hibbert and Gooding 2005]), I will not rehearse the entire subject ... More


Quality Control Tools

D. Brynn Hibbert

in Quality Assurance in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162127
eISBN:
9780197562093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162127.003.0008
Subject:
Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry

Although thoroughly convinced that no laboratory can function without proper regard to quality in all its myriad forms, the question remains, What do we do? As a quality control manager with a ... More


Statistics

Patrick Magee and Mark Tooley

in The Physics, Clinical Measurement and Equipment of Anaesthetic Practice for the FRCA

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199595150
eISBN:
9780191918032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595150.003.0006
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Anesthesiology

This chapter will provide background to enable the reader to understand basic statistics and be able then to follow more complex statistical ideas. Although statistics is more than the mere ... More


Density-modification procedures: improving a calculated map before interpretation

David Blow

in Outline of Crystallography for Biologists

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198510512
eISBN:
9780191919244
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198510512.003.0015
Subject:
Chemistry, Crystallography: Chemistry

Procedures to determine the phases of the structure factors, by isomorphous replacement, by anomalous scattering, or by molecular replacement, were described in the Chapters 7–9. Using one or more ... More


Electron-density maps

David Blow

in Outline of Crystallography for Biologists

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198510512
eISBN:
9780191919244
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198510512.003.0016
Subject:
Chemistry, Crystallography: Chemistry

When everything has been done to make the phases as good as possible, the time has come to examine the image of the structure in the form of an electron-density map. The electron-density map is the ... More


Phase improvement and extension

Carmelo Giacovazzo

in Phasing in Crystallography: A Modern Perspective

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199686995
eISBN:
9780191918377
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199686995.003.0013
Subject:
Chemistry, Crystallography: Chemistry

The descriptions of the various types of Fourier synthesis (observed, difference, hybrid) and of their properties, given in Chapter 7, suggest that electron density maps are not only a tool for ... More


Statistics

James Carr

in An Introduction to Clinical Research

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199570072
eISBN:
9780191917868
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199570072.003.0013
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Clinical Medicine

Here, we’ll attempt to provide an introduction to what statistics are, some key concepts, and some of the more common tests used in clinical research. It is not a definitive chapter—whole books ... More


Numerical solution methods

Hans Fehr and Fabian Kindermann

in Introduction to Computational Economics Using Fortran

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198804390
eISBN:
9780191917202
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198804390.003.0005
Subject:
Computer Science, Programming Languages

In this chapter we develop simple methods for solving numerical problems. We start with linear equation systems, continue with nonlinear equations and finally talk about optimization, ... More


Topics in finance and risk management

Hans Fehr and Fabian Kindermann

in Introduction to Computational Economics Using Fortran

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198804390
eISBN:
9780191917202
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198804390.003.0008
Subject:
Computer Science, Programming Languages

This chapter introduces basic concepts of modern finance theory and demonstrates how to apply them in complex real-world problems. Financial deals and investment decisions are typically determined ... More


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