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HOP over FOR, HOT Theory

Peter Carruthers

in Consciousness: Essays from a Higher-Order Perspective

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199277360
eISBN:
9780191602597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199277362.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Presents arguments against both first order (FOR) theories and actualist higher-order thought (HOT) theory (of the sort espoused by Rosenthal), and argues for the superiority of higher-order ... More


Why the Question of Animal Consciousness Might not Matter Very Much

Peter Carruthers

in Consciousness: Essays from a Higher-Order Perspective

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199277360
eISBN:
9780191602597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199277362.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Argues that all of the behaviours that we share with non-human animals can, and should, be explained in terms of the first-order, non-phenomenal, contents of our experiences. So, although we do have ... More


Emotional feelings and consciousness: a theory of consciousness

Edmund T. Rolls

in Emotion Explained

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198570035
eISBN:
9780191693793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570035.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter asks the questions: Why do emotional states (or any states) feel like something? What is the function of consciousness? Language enables us to work for deferred rewards: an explicit ... More


Conscious Thought

John Heil

in The Universe As We Find It

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199596201
eISBN:
9780191741876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199596201.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, General

The relation of thought to language is discussed and the thesis that a capacity for thought, or for some kinds of thought, requires the possession of a natural language assessed. The thesis, defended ... More


Natural Theories of Consciousness

Peter Carruthers

in Consciousness: Essays from a Higher-Order Perspective

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199277360
eISBN:
9780191602597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199277362.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Works its way through a variety of different accounts of phenomenal consciousness, looking at the strengths and weaknesses of each. At the heart of the chapter is an extended critical examination of ... More


Leibniz on Consciousness and Self‐Consciousness

Rocco J. Gennaro

in New Essays on the Rationalists

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195165418
eISBN:
9780199868285
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195165411.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

“Leibniz on Consciousness and Self‐Consciousness” It is argued that Leibniz held a version of the so‐called “higher‐order thought” (HOT) theory of consciousness. According to this theory, what makes ... More


The Consciousness Paradox: Consciousness, Concepts, and Higher-Order Thoughts

Rocco J. Gennaro

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016605
eISBN:
9780262298582
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016605.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Consciousness is arguably the most important area within contemporary philosophy of mind and perhaps the most puzzling aspect of the world. Despite an explosion of research from philosophers, ... More


Which cortical computations underlie consciousness?

Edmund T. Rolls

in Cerebral Cortex: Principles of Operation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198784852
eISBN:
9780191836299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198784852.003.0022
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

Consciousness, and especially phenomenal consciousness (why it should feel like something), is a ‘hard’ problem in philosophy. It is not clear that it is amenable to a solution using neuroscience, ... More


Is hypnotic responding the strategic relinquishment of metacognition?

Zoltán Dienes

in Foundations of Metacognition

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199646739
eISBN:
9780191745867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646739.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

According to the ‘cold control theory’ of Dienes and Perner (2007) hypnotic responding is intimately linked to metacognition. Specifically, we proposed that what makes a hypnotic response hypnotic is ... More


Can Science Know When You're Conscious?: Epistemological Foundations of Consciousness Research

Alvin I. Goldman

in Pathways to Knowledge: Private and Public

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195138795
eISBN:
9780199833252
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195138791.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Consciousness researchers commonly rely on their subjects’ verbal reports to determine their conscious states. Is this defensible in the conduct of science? Attempts might be made to rationalize the ... More


Experience and Consciousness

Michael Tye

in Tense Bees and Shell-Shocked Crabs: Are Animals Conscious?

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780190278014
eISBN:
9780190278045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190278014.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Moral Philosophy

What exactly is the connection between consciousness and experiences? The most plausible view is a simple one: a mental state is conscious” if and only if it is an experience—something that it can be ... More


Consciousness in Animals

Mark Rowlands

in Can Animals Be Persons?

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190846039
eISBN:
9780190846060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190846039.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

An animal is phenomenally conscious if there is something it is like to be that animal. There are excellent scientific reasons for thinking that many animals are phenomenally conscious. In humans, ... More


Anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic metacognition

Janet Metcalfe and Lisa K. Son

in Foundations of Metacognition

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199646739
eISBN:
9780191745867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646739.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

In the past, metacognition has been defined very broadly. On the one hand it has been referred to as an implicit process, where awareness need not be involved. On the other hand — the stronger and ... More


Introduction

Rocco J. Gennaro

in The Consciousness Paradox: Consciousness, Concepts, and Higher-Order Thoughts

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016605
eISBN:
9780262298582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016605.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This book defends and develops the metapsychological reductive representational theory of consciousness and attempts to apply it to several importantly related problems, including concept acquisition ... More


How Assessment Supports Learning: Learning-oriented Assessment in Action

David Carless

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9789622098237
eISBN:
9789882207035
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789622098237.001.0001
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

How Assessment Supports Learning: Learning-oriented Assessment in Action invites teachers in higher education to rethink the purposes of assessment and to revise their assessment practices in the ... More


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