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Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Samir Okasha

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Does natural selection act primarily on individual organisms, on groups, on genes, or on whole species? This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the long-standing controversy in evolutionary ... More


Natural Selection in the Abstract

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter studies the logic of evolution by natural selection and the origin of the levels of selection question. The abstract nature of the core Darwinian principles, and thus their potential ... More


Selection at Multiple Levels: Concepts and Methods

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter develops an abstract framework for thinking about selection acting at multiple hierarchical levels. The nature of hierarchical organization is analyzed, in particular the idea that ... More


Levels of Selection and the Major Evolutionary Transitions

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter looks at the ‘major evolutionary transitions’, in particular the idea that multi-level selection theory is crucial for understanding them. These transitions occur when a number of ... More


Gender in New Religions

Sarah M. Pike

in Teaching New Religious Movements

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195177299
eISBN:
9780199785537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177299.003.0010
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

New religious movements have typically emerged and thrived in times of social upheaval during which normative gender roles are challenged, such as in the United States during the industrializing ... More


Postmodernization Erodes Respect for Authority, But Increases Support for Democracy

Ronald Inglehart

in Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Government

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295686
eISBN:
9780191600043
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295685.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Presents an analysis of the reasons for the post‐modern shift to declining respect for/deference to authority among the publics of advanced industrial societies, and of the accompanying growing ... More


Hierarchical Bayesian Models

N. Thompson Hobbs and Mevin B. Hooten

in Bayesian Models: A Statistical Primer for Ecologists

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159287
eISBN:
9781400866557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159287.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter seeks to explain hierarchical models and how they differ from simple Bayesian models and to illustrate building hierarchical models using mathematically correct expressions. It begins ... More


The General Theory of Party Government

Ian Budge and Hans Keman

in Parties and Democracy: Coalition Formation and Government Functioning in Twenty States

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198279259
eISBN:
9780191598883
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198279256.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Deals with both the general assumptions and detailed predictions of the theory of party government proposed in the book. The general assumptions are that (1) in parliamentary democracies, the party ... More


Levels of Reality

John Heil

in From an Ontological Point of View

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199259748
eISBN:
9780191597657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199259747.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Chapter 2 Levels of RealityMany philosophers, especially self‐described ‘non‐reductive materialists’, embrace the idea that reality is hierarchical: the world comprises levels of being. Examples of ... More


Conclusion: The Federal Vision Beyond the Federal State

Kalypso Nicolaidis

in The Federal Vision: Legitimacy and Levels of Governance in the United States and the European Union

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199245000
eISBN:
9780191599996
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199245002.003.0019
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

Fleshes out some of the common horizontal themes emerging from the book, and presents the broad elements of federal vision that have been discussed. The vision calls for five concurrent shifts in ... More


Big Decisions, Little Decisions: The Hierarchy of Everyday Life

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0034
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The decisions we face in life are often hierarchically structured, ranging from mundane problems to expensive, life-altering processes. This chapter discusses a particular class of hierarchical ... More


Introduction

Heiko Narrog

in Modality, Subjectivity, and Semantic Change: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199694372
eISBN:
9780191742279
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694372.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

Goals of this book — theoretical orientation/principles of the approach


Are there Universal Principles or Forms of Evidential Inference? Of Inference Networks and Onto-Epistemology

PETER TILLERS

in Evidence, Inference and Enquiry

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264843
eISBN:
9780191754050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264843.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

This chapter discusses the limitations of approaches to modelling and handling evidential issues using hierarchical network representations. Such models of evidential inference rest on the compound ... More


Human Understanding and Local Interests: Occidentalism and the (Latin) American Argument

Walter D. Mignolo

in Local Histories/Global Designs: Coloniality, Subaltern Knowledges, and Border Thinking

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156095
eISBN:
9781400845064
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156095.003.0004
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter outlines a map of the border of the empires whose tensions contributed to the fabrication of a homogeneous notion of Latin America in the colonial horizon of modernity. These conflicting ... More


Structuring Sense Volume 2: The Normal Course of Events

Hagit Borer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199263929
eISBN:
9780191718168
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199263929.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

This is the second volume of three in the Structuring Sense series. This three-volume book sets out to demonstrate that the explanation of linguistic competence should be shifted from lexical entry ... More


The Classification of Constituent Order Generalizations and Diachronic Explanation

John Whitman

in Linguistic Universals and Language Change

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298495
eISBN:
9780191711442
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298495.003.0010
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

This chapter proposes a different classification of the Greenbergian constituent order universals, which extends naturally to larger compendia. Based on this classification, it suggests that the ... More


Fins and Limbs

Günter P. Wagner

in Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156460
eISBN:
9781400851461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156460.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the evolutionary processes underlying fins and limbs. Some of the most momentous periods in the history of the human lineage involved evolutionary changes to the paired ... More


Synthesis

Frederic H. Wagner

in Yellowstone's Destabilized Ecosystem: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195148213
eISBN:
9780199790449
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148213.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Northern-range elk numbers have changed through four successive population phases over time: low numbers in prehistory up to ~1883; censuses of >6,000 up to 20,000-35,000 from 1884-1958; <6,000 from ... More


Tonal Tension and Attraction

Fred Lerdahl

in Tonal Pitch Space

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195178296
eISBN:
9780199870370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178296.003.0004
Subject:
Music, Theory, Analysis, Composition

This chapter applies the pitch-space model to sequences and hierarchies of events to reveal patterns of tonal tension and attraction. Intuitions of tonal tension and relaxation correspond to ... More


Social Learning Strategies

William Hoppitt and Kevin N. Laland

in Social Learning: An Introduction to Mechanisms, Methods, and Models

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691150703
eISBN:
9781400846504
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691150703.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter focuses on social learning strategies—functional rules specifying what, when, and who to copy. There are many plausible social learning strategies. Individuals might disproportionately ... More


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