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Natural Selection in the Abstract

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter studies the logic of evolution by natural selection and the origin of the levels of selection question. The abstract nature of the core Darwinian principles, and thus their potential ... More


The Group Selection Controversy

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the notorious issue of group selection in behavioural ecology, one of the mainstays of the traditional levels of selection debate. The history of the group selection controversy ... More


Artificial selection

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Artificial selection provides a means of validating evolutionary principles, and is the basis of applied evolutionary biology. This chapter describes both short-term and long-term responses to ... More


Natural selection in open populations

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Natural selection can be observed and measured in natural populations. This chapter argues that it is commonplace, strong, fluctuating, and oligogenic. The first section here is called Fitness in ... More


Heritability, Maximization, and Evolutionary Explanations

James A.R. Marshall

in Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines which of the equivalent alternative partitions of fitness, including inclusive fitness and group fitness, can be interpreted as being subject to natural selection in a ... More


The Innate Mind, Volume 3: Foundations and the Future

Stephen Stich

Peter Carruthers and Stephen Laurence (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195332834
eISBN:
9780199868117
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195332834.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This book is the third of a three-volume set on the innate mind. It provides an assessment of nativist thought and definitive reference point for future inquiry. Nativists have long been interested ... More


Twin Studies of Heritability

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.31
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on the methodological issues arising from the discrepancy between the results of heritability studies and epidemiologic designs. It focuses on the basic principles of the ... More


Introduction to coevolution

Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, and Kevin P. Johnson

in Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and History

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226302133
eISBN:
9780226302300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226302300.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter provides an overview of basic principles of coevolutionary biology, including both microevolutionary (ecological) and macroevolutionary (historical) approaches and their integration. It ... More


The Heritability of Land: I

John Hudson

in Land, Law, and Lordship in Anglo-Norman England

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206880
eISBN:
9780191677359
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206880.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Medieval History

The situation following a tenant's death focused attention on the relationship of lord, aspiring vassal, and land. Often the lord would simply want a new tenant, and the dead man's closest relative ... More


Random effects models for sibling and twin-based studies in life course epidemiology

Samuli Ripatti

in Family matters: Designing, analysing and understanding family based studies in life course epidemiology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199231034
eISBN:
9780191723841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231034.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter introduces statistical methods for twin and sibling studies using random effects models. The classic twin study begins from assessing the variance of a trait (called a phenotype by ... More


Phenotype Landscapes, Adaptive Landscapes, and the Evolution of Development

Sean H. Rice

in The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199595372
eISBN:
9780191774799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595372.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Sewall Wright originally conceived of his Adaptive Landscape as a visual device to capture the consequences of non-linear (epistatic) interactions between genes. A useful way to visualise a ... More


Genetic aspects of ageing

Teri-Louise Davies, Tamuno Alfred, and Ian N M Day

in A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199656516
eISBN:
9780191748042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656516.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Genetic determinants of ageing have the potential to inform us about a wide range of molecular pathways which are not yet understood and which may offer the potential for modification. This chapter ... More


Life course epigenetics and healthy ageing

Paul Haggarty and Anne C Ferguson-Smith

in A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199656516
eISBN:
9780191748042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656516.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Because of their dynamic and heritable properties, epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as a promising biological explanation linking events and exposures across life to long-term health. Epigenetics ... More


What Is Group Selection?

Michael J. Wade

in Adaptation in Metapopulations: How Interaction Changes Evolution

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780226129563
eISBN:
9780226129877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226129877.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

In this chapter, the efficacy of group selection and the debates over it role, if any, in natural populations is discussed from the perspective of two different contexts. One debate is centered on ... More


Experimental Studies of Population Heritability

Michael J. Wade

in Adaptation in Metapopulations: How Interaction Changes Evolution

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780226129563
eISBN:
9780226129877
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226129877.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

In this chapter, the theoretical relationship between the strength of random genetic drift and the rate of increase of group heritability is discussed. The experimental methods for estimating ... More


Multivariate Parent-Offspring Analyses of Specific Cognitive Abilities

Maricela Alarcón, Robert Plomin, Robin P. Corley, and John C. Defries

in Nature, Nurture, and the Transition to Early Adolescence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195157475
eISBN:
9780199848065
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195157475.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

During the last few decades, family, twin, and adoption designs have been used to assess the genetic and environmental etiologies of specific cognitive ... More


Memory Ability during Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence in the Colorado Adoption Project

Stephen A. Petrill and Sally-Ann Rhea

in Nature, Nurture, and the Transition to Early Adolescence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195157475
eISBN:
9780199848065
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195157475.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter explores memory ability in the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP) at ages nine, ten, twelve, and fourteen. Although memory has been examined ... More


Teacher and Mother Ratings of Attention Problems

Stephanie Schmitz

in Nature, Nurture, and the Transition to Early Adolescence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195157475
eISBN:
9780199848065
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195157475.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Attention problems are highly prevalent, with rates of occurrence depending on the definition used, and make up to 50% of child psychiatric cases. ... More


Land

John Hudson

in The Oxford History of the Laws of England: 871-1216

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198260301
eISBN:
9780191740640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198260301.003.0014
Subject:
Law, Legal History, Constitutional and Administrative Law

This chapter concentrates primarily on the period up to 1135, with the balance of evidence causing some prioritisation of the reign of Henry I. It begins with the issue of lordship and lay ... More


Genetic Influences on Temperament in Early Adolescence: A Multimethod Perspective

Jeffrey R. Gagne, Kimberly J. Saudino, and Stacey S. Cherny

in Nature, Nurture, and the Transition to Early Adolescence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195157475
eISBN:
9780199848065
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195157475.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Although twin studies of infant and child temperament consistently yield evidence of moderate genetic influences, adoption studies do not. For example, ... More


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