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Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley Faeth

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Symbiotic relationships between plants and fungi are extremely common in nature, ranging from highly parasitic to closely mutualistic. Grasses, which are common and ecologically important components ... More


Food-Web Structure and Dynamics of East African Coral Reefs

Tim R. McClanahan

in Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195319958
eISBN:
9780199869596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195319958.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter describes the oceanography, biogeography, and management of coral reef ecosystems of East Africa. The chapter focuses on the role of marine protected areas and fishing in controlling ... More


Estimating Aboveground Net Primary Production in Shrub-Dominated Ecosystems

Donald R. Young

in Principles and Standards for Measuring Primary Production

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195168662
eISBN:
9780199790128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168662.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Shrublands pose particularly difficult challenges for primary production measurement because of the complex structure of the vegetation. Classical approaches are described, including dimension ... More


Estimating Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in Forest-Dominated Ecosystems

Brian D. Kloeppel, Mark E. Harmon, and Timothy J. Fahey

in Principles and Standards for Measuring Primary Production

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195168662
eISBN:
9780199790128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168662.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter focuses on the measurement of aboveground live biomass increment and tissue mortality in forest ecosystems. Standardized approaches for quantifying wood production, tree mortality, and ... More


Variation and evolution of reproductive traits in the Mediterranean mosaic

John D. Thompson

in Plant Evolution in the Mediterranean

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198515340
eISBN:
9780191705687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515340.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter examines the population ecology, variability, and evolution of reproductive traits in the spatially heterogeneous Mediterranean mosaic landscape. Three main themes are explored. First, ... More


The Interactions of Pollination and Herbivory

Pat Willmer

in Pollination and Floral Ecology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691128610
eISBN:
9781400838943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691128610.003.0025
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter explores the effects of pollination on herbivory and vice versa. When herbivores and pollinators are both active on plants, there is much scope for differential selection on plant ... More


Plant-animal interactions in deserts

David Ward

in The Biology of Deserts

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199211470
eISBN:
9780191728143
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211470.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Desert animals and plants interact in ways that have strongly influenced their respective evolutionary trajectories. This chapter begins with herbivory because of its widespread impacts, many of ... More


Beneficiary of a Changed Paradigm: Perspectives of a “Next-Generation” Scientist

Elizabeth T. Borer

in Long-Term Ecological Research: Changing the Nature of Scientists

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199380213
eISBN:
9780197562949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199380213.003.0021
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

As a scientist, the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program has deeply influenced my approach to scientific inquiry by creating an environment of ... More


Listening to Nature and Letting Data Be “Trump”

David Tilman

in Long-Term Ecological Research: Changing the Nature of Scientists

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199380213
eISBN:
9780197562949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199380213.003.0022
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

My long-term research, which has focused on major ecological mysteries and questions, has provided many unexpected insights into the processes, mechanisms, ... More


A Forest to Prairie Transition as a Long-Term Ecological Research Scientist

John Blair

in Long-Term Ecological Research: Changing the Nature of Scientists

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199380213
eISBN:
9780197562949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199380213.003.0035
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

Being involved in the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program for most of my career has greatly influenced my development as an ecologist. It has ... More


Confessions of a Fungal Systematist

D. Jean Lodge

in Long-Term Ecological Research: Changing the Nature of Scientists

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199380213
eISBN:
9780197562949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199380213.003.0039
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

The Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program has not influenced my basic approach to science. The LTER program has reinforced my approach to mentoring, ... More


Changing the Nature of Scientists: Participating in the Long-Term Ecological Research Program

Michael R. Willig and Lawrence R. Walker

in Long-Term Ecological Research: Changing the Nature of Scientists

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199380213
eISBN:
9780197562949
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199380213.003.0006
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

From the outside looking in, scientists are often characterized as old men in white laboratory coats, working in splendid isolation, usually within the ... More


Ecology of Native Animals in California Grasslands

Paula M. Schiffman

in California Grasslands: Ecology and Management

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252202
eISBN:
9780520933972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252202.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter addresses soil disturbance, seed dispersal, granivory, and herbivory from a historical perspective as well as within the context of modern-day understanding of grasslands in California. ... More


Disturbance and Diversity in Low-Productivity Ecosystems

Hugh D. Safford and Chris R. Mallek

in Serpentine: The Evolution and Ecology of a Model System

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520268357
eISBN:
9780520948457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520268357.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Given the great differences in productivity between serpentine and nonserpentine habitats, coupled with the heightened presence of endemics and species of conservation concern in the former, it would ... More


Plant–Animal Interactions in Deserts

David Ward

in The Biology of Deserts

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2016
ISBN:
9780198732754
eISBN:
9780191796982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198732754.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Plant–animal interactions are as important in deserts as they are in any other ecosystem. Although it is likely that abiotic factors have greater influence in deserts than in other ecosystems, biotic ... More


The Effects of Grazing on Plant Biodiversity in Arid Ecosystems

David Ward

in Biodiversity in Drylands: Toward a Unified Framework

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195139853
eISBN:
9780197561720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195139853.003.0021
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

Conventional wisdom views heavy grazing as the major cause of desertification in semiarid and arid areas of Africa, Asia, and Australia (see, e.g., Acocks ... More


Toward a Unified Framework in Biodiversity Studies

James R. Gosz and Avi Perevolotsky

in Biodiversity in Drylands: Toward a Unified Framework

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195139853
eISBN:
9780197561720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195139853.003.0026
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

Biodiversity has been defined as the “full variety of life on Earth” (Takacs 1996). Because biodiversity refers to a fundamental property of ecological ... More


Overview of Sauropod Phylogeny and Evolution

Jeffrey A. Wilson

in The Sauropods: Evolution and Paleobiology

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520246232
eISBN:
9780520932333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520246232.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter reports the current view of sauropod phylogeny and shows that sauropods were successful in terms of their geographic and temporal distributions, biomass, morphological complexity, and ... More


Digital Reconstructions of Sauropod Dinosaurs and Implications for Feeding

Kent A. Stevens and J. Michael Parrish

in The Sauropods: Evolution and Paleobiology

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520246232
eISBN:
9780520932333
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520246232.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the method for three-dimensional reconstructions of sauropod skeletons, focusing on the pose of the neck and its implications for sauropod herbivory. It determines that most ... More


Wildfires

Francisco Lloret and Josep Piñol

in The Physical Geography of the Mediterranean

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199268030
eISBN:
9780191919305
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199268030.003.0033
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Physical Geography and Topography

Fire is currently recognized as one of the major natural hazards of the Mediterranean basin. In an average year the total burnt area in the whole basin is ... More


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