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Introduction: The Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley H. Faeth

in Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Symbiotic associations between plants and fungi are very common in ecological communities. In grasses, the hyphae of endophytic fungi (Family Clavicipitaceae; Tribe Balansiae) can be found growing ... More


Endophytes and Host-Plant Herbivore Relationships

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley H. Faeth

in Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Perhaps the most well-studied attribute of endophyte-infected grasses is their ability to produce alkaloids. These endophytic alkaloids fall into four general classes: 1) pyrrolopyrazine alkaloids; ... More


Community and Ecosystem Consequences of Grass Endophytes

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley H. Faeth

in Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Despite their minute biomass relative to other species, endophytes have the potential to have profound effects on community structure and diversity and ecosystem functions. For agronomic grasses, ... More


The Interactions of Pollination and Herbivory

Pat Willmer

in Pollination and Floral Ecology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691128610
eISBN:
9781400838943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691128610.003.0025
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter explores the effects of pollination on herbivory and vice versa. When herbivores and pollinators are both active on plants, there is much scope for differential selection on plant ... More


The ecology of animals: Foods and feeding

Richard T. Corlett

in The Ecology of Tropical East Asia

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198817017
eISBN:
9780191858703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817017.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Most biomass consists of plants but most non-microbial species are animals, and these animals play a great diversity of roles in tropical ecosystems. This chapter therefore deals with the ecology of ... More


Above-ground trophic interactions and soil biological communities

Richard D. Bardgett

in The Biology of Soil: A community and ecosystem approach

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525035
eISBN:
9780191728181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525035.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines some of the many ways that above-ground herbivores may influence below-ground organisms and processes, and how these changes in soil biological properties may in turn feedback ... More


Phenotypic Plasticity

Kailen A. Mooney and Anurag A. Agrawal

in Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation: The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520251328
eISBN:
9780520933828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520251328.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism, a single genotype, to exhibit different phenotypes in different environments. It is nearly ubiquitous in nature and occurs in various animal and ... More


Diversity, Evolution, and Adaptations of Sirenians and other Marine Mammals

Annalisa Berta

in Return to the Sea: The Life and Evolutionary Times of Marine Mammals

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780520270572
eISBN:
9780520951440
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520270572.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The origin and evolutionary history of sirenians (manatees and dugongs) and their extinct relatives are reviewed in this chapter, in addition to sea and marine otters, polar bears, and evolutionary ... More


Conservation of Australian Arid-Zone Marsupials: Making Use of Knowledge of Their Energy and Water Requirements

Ian D. Hume, Lesley A. Gibson, and Steven J. Lapidge

in Experimental Approaches to Conservation Biology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520240247
eISBN:
9780520930636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520240247.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter describes conservation studies of two Australian arid-zone marsupials, the bilby or rabbit-eared bandicoot (Macrotis lagotis) and the yellow-footed rock-wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus). ... More


Pleistocene Park

JOE C. TRUETT

in Grass: In Search of Human Habitat

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258396
eISBN:
9780520944527
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258396.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses the re-wilding of Pleistocene Park. Re-wilding is a plan to restore animals that disappeared thirteen thousand years ago from Pleistocene North America, which offers an ... More


Selection by Pollinators and Herbivores on Attraction and Defense

Lynn S. Adler

in Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation: The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520251328
eISBN:
9780520933828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520251328.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Interactions between plants, their herbivores, and their pollinators are thought to have led to the diversification of both plants and insects. Historically, studies of plant–herbivore and ... More


Adaptive Radiation: Phylogenetic Constraints and Ecological Consequences

Peter W. Price

in Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation: The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520251328
eISBN:
9780520933828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520251328.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is how adaptive radiation proceeds on continents, where most of it occurs. The question is most pressing when insects are considered, especially in ... More


Sequential Radiation through Host-Race Formation: Herbivore Diversity Leads to Diversity in Natural Enemies

Warren G. Abrahamson and Catherine P. Blair

in Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation: The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520251328
eISBN:
9780520933828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520251328.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Sympatric speciation through formation of host races may present a situation where specialization and resultant diversification in one species cause diversification in another. Studies involving a ... More


Conservation of Coevolved Insect Herbivores and Plants

Carol L. Boggs and Paul R. Ehrlich

in Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation: The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520251328
eISBN:
9780520933828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520251328.003.0023
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

One cannot consider the conservation of plants without thinking about their relationship with the creatures that eat them; and herbivorous insects have long been among the worst enemies of the global ... More


Dinosaur Paleoecology

David E. Fastovsky and Joshua B. Smith

in The Dinosauria

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520242098
eISBN:
9780520941434
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520242098.003.0029
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the paleoecology of dinosaurs. It first examines the variety of adaptations of dinosaurs to sustain their herbivorous habits. It then describes Mesozoic paleobotany and ... More


Evolution of Preference and Performance Relationships

Timothy P. Craig and Joanne K. Itami

in Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation: The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520251328
eISBN:
9780520933828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520251328.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Preference is nonrandom oviposition on resources offered simultaneously or sequentially. Performance is any measure of offspring survival, growth, or reproduction that is presumed to be correlated ... More


Selection and Genetic Architecture of Plant Resistance

Mary Ellen Czesak, Robert S. Fritz, and Cris Hochwender

in Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation: The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520251328
eISBN:
9780520933828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520251328.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Basic and applied research programs can both benefit by approaching concerns regarding resistance to herbivores from a perspective centering on natural selection and genetic architecture of ... More


The ecology of animals: foods and feeding

Richard T. Corlett

in The Ecology of Tropical East Asia

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199681341
eISBN:
9780191789175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681341.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter deals with the ecology of Tropical East Asia from an animal perspective. Diet is often the best-known aspect of an animal’s ecology and an animal’s diet has consequences for all other ... More


Models for Fluctuating Rodent Populations

Charles J. Krebs

in Population Fluctuations in Rodents

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226010359
eISBN:
9780226010496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226010496.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter describes the mathematical models of rodent population cycles or fluctuations. It first provides a brief historical background of mathematical models that have been put forward to ... More


Antagonism and Mutualism: Indirect Interactions

Victor Rico-Gray and Paulo S. Oliveira

in The Ecology and Evolution of Ant-Plant Interactions

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226713472
eISBN:
9780226713540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226713540.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Some plants attract natural enemies of herbivores (for example, ants and predatory and parasitoid flies and wasps) by bearing honeydew-producing insects such as hemipterans, lepidopteran larvae, and ... More


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