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Punishing Racial Discrimination and Hate Crimes

Erik Bleich

in The Freedom to Be Racist?: How the United States and Europe Struggle to Preserve Freedom and Combat Racism

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199739684
eISBN:
9780199914579
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199739684.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

It is tempting to assume that liberal democracies have always targeted racial discrimination and hate crimes for specific punishment. But meaningful laws only materialized starting in the 1960s and ... More


Sexual Orientation and Violent Victimization: Hate Crimes and Intimate Partner Violence among Gay and Bisexual Males in the United States

Gregory M. Herek and Charles Sims

in Unequal Opportunity: Health Disparities Affecting Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195301533
eISBN:
9780199863815
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195301533.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides a review of the data regarding the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization among gay and bisexual men in the United States. It specifically focuses on the ... More


The Freedom to Be Racist?: How the United States and Europe Struggle to Preserve Freedom and Combat Racism

Erik Bleich

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199739684
eISBN:
9780199914579
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199739684.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

We love freedom. We hate racism. But what do we do when these two values collide? This book explores the policies that the United States, Britain, France, Germany, and other liberal democracies have ... More


Hate crime

Chris Gilligan

in Northern Ireland and the Crisis of Anti-Racism: Rethinking Racism and Sectarianism

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780719086526
eISBN:
9781526128621
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719086526.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

This chapter examines ‘race hate crime’ policy as an expression of the decline of the emancipatory dynamic of the anti-racism of the 1960s and 1970s. The author makes the case for treating hate ... More


The Specters of Citizenship: Hate Crimes and the Fear of the Repressed

Amy L. Brandzel

in Against Citizenship: The Violence of the Normative

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040030
eISBN:
9780252098239
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040030.003.0002
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter examines the violent maintenance of citizenship through the police state, and the uses of hate crime legislation to both name and disallow any recognition of this violence. The ... More


Responding to hate crime: The case for connecting policy and research

Neil Chakraborti and Jon Garland (eds)

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447308768
eISBN:
9781447311669
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447308768.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

Why has so much hate crime policy seemingly ignored academic research? And why has so much of this research been conducted inside of its own separate academic bubble? This book addresses those ... More


A victim-centred approach to conceptualising ‘hate crime’

Paul Iganski

in 'Hate crime' and the city

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861349408
eISBN:
9781447302476
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861349408.003.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

Even though the term ‘hate crime’ has caught on in some quarters, it is a rather slippery concept. Varying interpretations have been provided in the scholarly and policy literature, but they do have ... More


'Hate crime' and the city

Paul Iganski

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861349408
eISBN:
9781447302476
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861349408.001.0001
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

The impression often conveyed by the media about hate crime offenders is that they are hate-fuelled individuals who, in acting out their extremely bigoted views, target their victims in premeditated ... More


Tensions in liberalism and the criminalisation of ‘hate’

Paul Iganski

in 'Hate crime' and the city

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861349408
eISBN:
9781447302476
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861349408.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

This chapter uses data from the British Crime Survey to examine the harms of ‘hate crime’ as experienced by victims. It offers new perspectives on the longstanding debate about the desirability of ... More


Conclusions: understanding everyday ‘hate crime’

Paul Iganski

in 'Hate crime' and the city

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861349408
eISBN:
9781447302476
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861349408.003.0006
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

This book has focused squarely on the foreground of ‘hate crime’ — informed largely by victims' accounts and reports of incidents to the police and in victimisation surveys. This chapter draws out ... More


Evidencing the Case for ‘Hate Crime’

Joanna Perry

in Responding to hate crime: The case for connecting policy and research

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447308768
eISBN:
9781447311669
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447308768.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

‘Hate crime’ is a relatively new concept in the international criminal justice policy arena. Diverse social, political and historical contexts produce inconsistent terminology, data collection ... More


Two wrongs don’t make a right: (in)tolerance and hate crime laws in Northern Ireland

Chris Gilligan

in Tolerance and Diversity In Ireland, North and South

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780719097201
eISBN:
9781526103994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719097201.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The issue of racism and sectarianism is increasingly understood through the prism of ‘hate crime’. This way of conceptualising racism and sectarianism is usually accompanied by the claim that society ... More


Including victims of ‘hate crime’ in the criminal justice policy process

Paul Iganski

in 'Hate crime' and the city

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861349408
eISBN:
9781447302476
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861349408.003.0005
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

Given the centrality of the victim to the conceptualisation of ‘hate crime’, this chapter explores the significance of including the victim in the ‘hate crime’ policy process. It analyses findings ... More


We Need to Talk About Women: Examining the Place of Gender in Hate Crime Policy

Hannah Mason-Bish

in Responding to hate crime: The case for connecting policy and research

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447308768
eISBN:
9781447311669
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447308768.003.0013
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter explores the category of gender as a potential victim group within hate crime policy and research. Instead of arguing for or against its inclusion as a new “strand” in the hate crime ... More


Creating ideal victims in hate crime policy

Hannah Mason-Bish

in Revisiting the “Ideal Victim”: Developments in Critical Victimology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781447338765
eISBN:
9781447339182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447338765.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter suggests that problems over the perception of the nature of hate crime mean that often victims of disablist hate crime are overlooked. Developed partly through campaign group activism ... More


New victimisations: female sex worker hate crime and the ‘ideal victim’

Karen Corteen

in Revisiting the “Ideal Victim”: Developments in Critical Victimology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781447338765
eISBN:
9781447339182
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447338765.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Female sex worker victim characteristics and their social, situational and interactive contexts have not substantially changed. Yet, the manner in which female sex worker victimisation is currently ... More


Responding to Neighborhood Hate Crimes

Jeannine Bell

in Hate Thy Neighbor: Move-In Violence and the Persistence of Racial Segregation in American Housing

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814791448
eISBN:
9780814760222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814791448.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter focuses on the government's response to anti-integrationist violence. This response may involve a variety of actors, ranging from police officers investigating the crime to judges ... More


The spatial dynamics of everyday ‘hate crime’

Paul Iganski

in 'Hate crime' and the city

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861349408
eISBN:
9781447302476
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861349408.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Crime and Justice

This chapter shows that the geography of space and place clearly plays a role in generating encounters between offenders and victims. It therefore mediates between the background structural context ... More


Not Getting Away with it: Linking Sex Work and Hate Crime in Merseyside

Rosie Campbell

in Responding to hate crime: The case for connecting policy and research

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447308768
eISBN:
9781447311669
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447308768.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

In 2006 Merseyside Police were the first UK force to treat crimes against sex workers as hate crime. This chapter overviews the factors that led to that approach and its key constituent elements, ... More


Hate Crime Concepts and their Moral Foundations: A Universal Framework?

David Brax

in The Globalization of Hate: Internationalizing Hate Crime?

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198785668
eISBN:
9780191827730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198785668.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Hate crime legislation is established in many countries across the world, and the term ‘hate crime’ is widely applied in political and scholarly settings. While there seem to be widespread ... More


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