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Electoral Systems—Simple and Complex

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

To allocate seats to candidates or parties, even a simple electoral system must specify at least the following: the total number of seats in the assembly (assembly size); the number of seats ... More


Sorting Out Ethics

R. M. Hare

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250326
eISBN:
9780191597602
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250320.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This book is divided into three parts: in Part I, R. M. Hare offers a justification for the use of philosophy of language in the treatment of moral questions, together with an overview of his moral ... More


Proportional Representation: Critics of the British Electoral System 1820-1945

Jenifer Hart

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198201366
eISBN:
9780191674860
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201366.001.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Political History

This book is a scholarly history of the proportional representation movement. The book explores its origins in the early 19th century and analyses the contribution of political thinkers such as ... More


Democracy as a Condorcet Truth‐Tracker

Robert E. Goodin

in Reflective Democracy

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256174
eISBN:
9780191599354
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256179.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

It is a long‐standing debate within political philosophy generally whether we want our political outcomes to be right or whether we want them to be fair; while democratic theory has traditionally ... More


 Q & A

Lenn E. Goodman

in Love Thy Neighbour As Thyself

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195328820
eISBN:
9780199870172
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195328820.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Judaism

Christine Korsgaard surveys several ways of warranting ethics (Hobbes, Puffendorff, Moore, Ross, Nagel, Hutcheson, Hume, Mill, Williams). She chooses a neo‐Kantian approach. But Goodman finds her ... More


Abortion: The ‘Pro‐Death’ View

David Benatar

in Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199296422
eISBN:
9780191712005
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199296422.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The conclusions of the previous chapters are applied to the abortion question. Four kinds of interests are distinguished: functional, biotic, conscious, and reflective interests. It is argued that ... More


Jonathan Glover

Alan Ryan

in Ethics and Humanity: Themes from the Philosophy of Jonathan Glover

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195325195
eISBN:
9780199776412
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325195.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

This brief chapter is a lively, anecdotal appreciation of Jonathan Glover written by a friend and former colleague.


Duplex Gratia

Paul Helm

in Calvin at the Centre

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199532186
eISBN:
9780191714580
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199532186.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This chapter argues that Calvin's idea of salvation taking the form of a ‘double grace’ (duplex gratia), justification and sanctification, two distinct but inseparable gifts, is a stroke of genius. ... More


Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Gary E. Varner

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

R.M. Hare was one of the most important ethical theorists in the second half of the 20th century, and one of his graduate students, Peter Singer, became famous for his writings on animals and ... More


Introduction

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This introductory chapter discusses the concept of personhood, and provides a general overview of Hare’s theory. In day-to-day speech, “person” is often used synonymously with “human being,” but in ... More


Hare on the Logic of Moral Discourse

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

Hare argues that all moral thinking is ultimately utilitarian, because moral judgements have three logical properties that, taken together, force us to think like utilitarians. At the same time, he ... More


The Nature of Intuitive-Level System (ILS) Rules

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

Hare argues that good utilitarian reasons can be given for not thinking like utilitarians in most normal situations, where several different kinds of rules should be adhered to. This chapter focuses ... More


Assessing Hare’s Theory

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter provides a summary assessment of Hare’s theory, both as an empirical account of actual human moral thinking and as a normative theory of how we ought to think and act. The chapter argues ... More


Replaceability, Population, and Marginal Cases

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter surveys what Peter Singer has said about the “replaceability” of non-persons, emphasizing that there are problems with each of several different accounts he has offered and how these ... More


A Harean Perspective on Humane Sustainable Agriculture

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This chapter illustrates the application of Harean utilitarianism to the debate over what constitutes humane sustainable agriculture. My goal is to illustrate how nuanced and contextualized is a ... More


Harey Animals

Gary E. Varner

in Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199758784
eISBN:
9780199949465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Moral Philosophy

This brief concluding chapter compares and contrasts the Harean perspective on animal ethics developed in this book with the views of Peter Singer, who wrote his dissertation with Hare. Singer’s ... More


Early Objections

Jenifer Hart

in Proportional Representation: Critics of the British Electoral System 1820-1945

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198201366
eISBN:
9780191674860
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201366.003.0005
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Political History

Hare's book received several criticisms and objections, some of which generally took on the notion of proportional representation while others specifically articulated objections towards Hare's ... More


Family Development and Change in the Hare Krishna Movement

E. Burke Rochford, Jr.

in Controversial New Religions

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195156829
eISBN:
9780199784806
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019515682X.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, World Religions

This essay examines family development and change within the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), more popularly known as the Hare Krishna movement. It focuses on the demise of ... More


The Golden Rule and a Theory of Moral Reasoning

Thomas L. Carson

in Lying and Deception: Theory and Practice

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199577415
eISBN:
9780191722813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577415.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

This chapter develops a theory of moral reasoning in the form of rationality conditions for moral judgments. The chapter argues that moral judges must be: 1) consistent, 2) adequately informed by ... More


PRUDENCE: MAXIMIZATION OR IDEALISM?

Ingmar Persson

in The Retreat of Reason: A dilemma in the philosophy of life

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199276905
eISBN:
9780191603198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199276900.003.0027
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter argues that in the realm of prudence, we are not rationally required to maximize the desire-fulfilment of our lives. It is not irrational to adopt ideals, such as the rationalist ideal ... More


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