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Lessons from haemoglobin

Julian C. Knight

in Human Genetic Diversity: Functional Consequences for Health and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199227693
eISBN:
9780191711015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227693.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

Study of genetic variation at the globin genes has provided a series of fundamental insights the nature and extent of genetic diversity and its functional consequences. This chapter provides a primer ... More


Respiratory systems

A. Schmidt-Rhaesa

in The Evolution of Organ Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566687
eISBN:
9780191718007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566687.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Oxygen uptake is essential for animals, and many animals take up oxygen through their external surface. In these cases particular respiratory structures are not formed; in water these are generally ... More


Balancing Selection and Disease

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Some forms of selection, called “balancing selection” can maintain variation. Human beta-hemoglobin is an example of a gene under balancing selection. Individuals having two copies of the sickle ... More


Respiratory Biology of Animals: evolutionary and functional morphology

Steven F. Perry, Markus Lambertz, and Anke Schmitz

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199238460
eISBN:
9780191864056
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199238460.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Developmental Biology

The aim of this book is to shed light on one of the most fundamental processes of life in the various lineages of animals: respiration. It provides a certain background on the physiological side of ... More


Architects of Structural Biology: Bragg, Perutz, Kendrew, Hodgkin

John Meurig Thomas

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198854500
eISBN:
9780191888793
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198854500.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Designed for the non-specialist, the explanations and illustrations used here describe the work, personalities, collaborations, and idiosyncrasies of four of the most distinguished Nobel Laureates of ... More


Genetic haematological disorders

Sir David Weatherall and Elizabeth A. Letsky

in Antenatal and Neonatal Screening

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192628268
eISBN:
9780191723605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192628268.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This main focus of this chapter is on genetic disorders of the structure or synthesis of haemoglobin — especially sickle cell disease and the thalassaemias, which are common enough in many ... More


Malaria

Robert L. Perlman

in Evolution and Medicine

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199661718
eISBN:
9780191774720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661718.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Despite recent progress in reducing the prevalence of malaria, it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in infants and young children. Malaria is the infectious disease that ... More


Hemoglobin: Insights into protein structure, function, and evolution

Jay F. Storz

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780198810681
eISBN:
9780191847929
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810681.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

The aims of this book are to provide a synthesis of our current understanding of hemoglobin structure, function, and evolution, and to illustrate how research on this paradigmatic protein has ... More


Gene duplication and hemoglobin isoform differentiation

Jay F. Storz

in Hemoglobin: Insights into protein structure, function, and evolution

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780198810681
eISBN:
9780191847929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810681.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 6 explores the physiological significance of gene duplication and hemoglobin isoform differentiation. Repeated rounds of gene duplication and divergence during the evolution of jawed ... More


The Modern Synthesis: Discussion

Eva Jablonka

in Transformations of Lamarckism: From Subtle Fluids to Molecular Biology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015141
eISBN:
9780262295642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015141.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses important issues concerning the Modern Synthesis. First, it describes the neglected ideas and overlooked theories of Cyril Darlington. It then discusses the decline of the ... More


Perutz and Kendrew: The Heroic Era of Structural Molecular Biology

John Meurig Thomas

in Architects of Structural Biology: Bragg, Perutz, Kendrew, Hodgkin

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198854500
eISBN:
9780191888793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198854500.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

When Perutz and Kendrew embarked on their determination of the structures of haemoglobin and myoglobin, most scientists felt that they would never succeed. These molecules contain approximately ... More


A study in scarlet: The role of hemoglobin in blood gas transport

Jay F. Storz

in Hemoglobin: Insights into protein structure, function, and evolution

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780198810681
eISBN:
9780191847929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810681.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 2 provides an overview of hemoglobin function and its physiological role in respiratory gas transport. Much of the chapter is devoted to explaining the physiological significance of ... More


Allosteric theory

Jay F. Storz

in Hemoglobin: Insights into protein structure, function, and evolution

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780198810681
eISBN:
9780191847929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810681.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 3 provides a brief overview of allostery, the modulation of protein activity that is caused by an indirect interaction between structurally remote binding sites. In this mode of ... More


Gas exchange

Derek Burton and Margaret Burton

in Essential Fish Biology: Diversity, structure, and function

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198785552
eISBN:
9780191827433
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198785552.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Animal Biology

Oxygen intake for respiration, also carbon dioxide and, generally, ammonia elimination takes place across gas-exchange surfaces, usually the gills in fish. Water flows across gills, separated by the ... More


Sickle Cell Disease

Omar Niss and Russell E. Ware

in Pediatric and Adult Nutrition in Chronic Diseases, Developmental Disabilities, and Hereditary Metabolic Disorders: Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780199398911
eISBN:
9780199398942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199398911.003.0034
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter discusses sickle cell disease and related conditions, including biochemical, pathological, and clinical abnormalities and factors to be considered in nutritional evaluation (e.g., ... More


The evolution of water-breathing respiratory faculties in craniotes

Steven F. Perry, Markus Lambertz, and Anke Schmitz

in Respiratory Biology of Animals: evolutionary and functional morphology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199238460
eISBN:
9780191864056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199238460.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Developmental Biology

The major components of the respiratory faculty (gill structure, muscular ventilation, central heart and erythrocyte-containing blood, and pH-sensitive control of breathing) appear to have been ... More


The bottom line

Steven F. Perry, Markus Lambertz, and Anke Schmitz

in Respiratory Biology of Animals: evolutionary and functional morphology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199238460
eISBN:
9780191864056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199238460.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Developmental Biology

This chapter summarizes the most important aspects of the entire book. Writing an abstract of a summary can result in a ‘bouillon cube’ of information that is nearly incomprehensible, so this sticks ... More


Structure, function, and evolution of respiratory proteins

Steven F. Perry, Markus Lambertz, and Anke Schmitz

in Respiratory Biology of Animals: evolutionary and functional morphology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199238460
eISBN:
9780191864056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199238460.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Developmental Biology

Respiratory proteins are complexes of proteins and metal ions. In haemoglobin the metal is iron, in haemocyanin—the most common invertebrate respiratory protein—it is copper. Globins such as ... More


The evolution of water-breathing respiratory faculties in invertebrates

Steven F. Perry, Markus Lambertz, and Anke Schmitz

in Respiratory Biology of Animals: evolutionary and functional morphology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199238460
eISBN:
9780191864056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199238460.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Developmental Biology

This chapter aims at piecing together the evolution of water breathing in invertebrates. Dedicated respiratory faculties, consisting of an external exchanger, an internal transport system ... More


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