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## String theory

*Claus Kiefer*

### in Quantum Gravity: Third Edition

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- May 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780199585205
- eISBN:
- 9780191739378
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585205.003.0009
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses at length the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. After a general introduction which includes the emergence of the graviton for the free string, the Polyakov path ... More

## String Theory

*Claus Kiefer*

### in Quantum Gravity

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- January 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780199212521
- eISBN:
- 9780191707377
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199212521.003.09
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses at length the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. After a general introduction which includes the emergence of the graviton for the free string, the Polyakov path ... More

## Virtual Particles and the Four Forces

*William J. Mullin*

### in Quantum Weirdness

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- March 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198795131
- eISBN:
- 9780191836480
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198795131.003.0013
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The four forces in nature—electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, and gravitational force—arise from the exchange of virtual bosons: photons, gluons, W bosons, Z bosons, and ... More

## More on the Fundamental Forces and Their “Carriers”

*Alvaro De Rújula*

### in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

- Published in print:
- 2018
- Published Online:
- February 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198817802
- eISBN:
- 9780191859366
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0007
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

A discussion of the “carriers” of the basic forces of nature and the way they “work.” Electrical charges and their interaction with photons (QED). Gravitons and the identity of inertial and ... More

## Quantum Magic and Quantum Mystery

*Roger Penrose and Martin Gardner*

### in The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and The Laws of Physics

- Published in print:
- 1989
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198519737
- eISBN:
- 9780191917080
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198519737.003.0014
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

In classical physics there is, in accordance with common sense, an objective world ‘out there’. That world evolves in a clear and deterministic way, being governed by precisely formulated ... More

## General notions of perturbative quantum gravity

*Iosif L. Buchbinder and Ilya L. Shapiro*

### in Introduction to Quantum Field Theory with Applications to Quantum Gravity

- Published in print:
- 2021
- Published Online:
- April 2021
- ISBN:
- 9780198838319
- eISBN:
- 9780191874666
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198838319.003.0018
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter introduces the topic of perturbative quantum gravity. Symmetry analysis of classical gravitational models shows that quantum gravity is a Yang-Mills theory. Using power counting, ... More

## Elements of classical and quantum gravity

*Jean Zinn-Justin*

### in Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena: Fifth Edition

- Published in print:
- 2021
- Published Online:
- June 2021
- ISBN:
- 9780198834625
- eISBN:
- 9780191872723
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198834625.003.0028
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter has two purposes; to describe a few elements of differential geometry that are required in different places in this work, and to provide, for completeness, a short introduction to ... More

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