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String theory

Claus Kiefer

in Quantum Gravity: Third Edition

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199585205
eISBN:
9780191739378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585205.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses at length the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. After a general introduction which includes the emergence of the graviton for the free string, the Polyakov path ... More


String Theory

Claus Kiefer

in Quantum Gravity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199212521
eISBN:
9780191707377
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199212521.003.09
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses at length the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. After a general introduction which includes the emergence of the graviton for the free string, the Polyakov path ... More


Virtual Particles and the Four Forces

William J. Mullin

in Quantum Weirdness

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780198795131
eISBN:
9780191836480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198795131.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The four forces in nature—electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, and gravitational force—arise from the exchange of virtual bosons: photons, gluons, W bosons, Z bosons, and ... More


More on the Fundamental Forces and Their “Carriers”

Alvaro De Rújula

in Enjoy Our Universe: You Have No Other Choice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198817802
eISBN:
9780191859366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198817802.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

A discussion of the “carriers” of the basic forces of nature and the way they “work.” Electrical charges and their interaction with photons (QED). Gravitons and the identity of inertial and ... More


Quantum Magic and Quantum Mystery

Roger Penrose and Martin Gardner

in The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and The Laws of Physics

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198519737
eISBN:
9780191917080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198519737.003.0014
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

In classical physics there is, in accordance with common sense, an objective world ‘out there’. That world evolves in a clear and deterministic way, being governed by precisely formulated ... More


General notions of perturbative quantum gravity

Iosif L. Buchbinder and Ilya L. Shapiro

in Introduction to Quantum Field Theory with Applications to Quantum Gravity

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198838319
eISBN:
9780191874666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198838319.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter introduces the topic of perturbative quantum gravity. Symmetry analysis of classical gravitational models shows that quantum gravity is a Yang-Mills theory. Using power counting, ... More


Elements of classical and quantum gravity

Jean Zinn-Justin

in Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena: Fifth Edition

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
June 2021
ISBN:
9780198834625
eISBN:
9780191872723
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198834625.003.0028
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter has two purposes; to describe a few elements of differential geometry that are required in different places in this work, and to provide, for completeness, a short introduction to ... More


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