*Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691174631
- eISBN:
- 9781400888689
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691174631.003.0017
- Subject:
- Physics, History of Physics

This chapter shows that in the limit of weak fields and low velocities, the equation of the geodesic line reduces to Newton's equation of motion. It proceeds to derive the gravitational field ...
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This chapter shows that in the limit of weak fields and low velocities, the equation of the geodesic line reduces to Newton's equation of motion. It proceeds to derive the gravitational field equation. Next, the chapter uses the gravitational field equation to derive the three effects that served as the first tests of the theory: the bending of light by the gravitational field of the sun, the shift to the red of spectral lines emitted by atoms in a gravitational field (gravitational redshift), and the motion of the perihelion of planet Mercury. After a short remark about expressing Maxwell's equations of the electromagnetic field, the chapter turns to the “so-called cosmological problem.” Its main theme is the defense of Mach's principle, which states that all inertial phenomena, namely the fictitious forces arising in accelerated reference frames, are caused by all the masses in the universe.Less

This chapter shows that in the limit of weak fields and low velocities, the equation of the geodesic line reduces to Newton's equation of motion. It proceeds to derive the gravitational field equation. Next, the chapter uses the gravitational field equation to derive the three effects that served as the first tests of the theory: the bending of light by the gravitational field of the sun, the shift to the red of spectral lines emitted by atoms in a gravitational field (gravitational redshift), and the motion of the perihelion of planet Mercury. After a short remark about expressing Maxwell's equations of the electromagnetic field, the chapter turns to the “so-called cosmological problem.” Its main theme is the defense of Mach's principle, which states that all inertial phenomena, namely the fictitious forces arising in accelerated reference frames, are caused by all the masses in the universe.

*Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691174631
- eISBN:
- 9781400888689
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691174631.003.0006
- Subject:
- Physics, History of Physics

This chapter discusses the first wave of the exploration of exact solutions to Einstein's gravitational field equations. When Einstein published the final form of the field equations in 1915, only an ...
More

This chapter discusses the first wave of the exploration of exact solutions to Einstein's gravitational field equations. When Einstein published the final form of the field equations in 1915, only an approximate solution was known. Given the complicated nonlinear character of the field equations, he did not expect that exact solutions could easily be found. He was all the more surprised when the astronomer Karl Schwarzschild presented him with just such an exact solution. Thus, this chapter presents a series of these solutions, beginning with the work of Karl Schwarzschild, Johannes Droste, Willem de Sitter, Alexander Friedmann, Hans Reissner, Gunnar Nordström, and finally, Georges Lemaître.Less

This chapter discusses the first wave of the exploration of exact solutions to Einstein's gravitational field equations. When Einstein published the final form of the field equations in 1915, only an approximate solution was known. Given the complicated nonlinear character of the field equations, he did not expect that exact solutions could easily be found. He was all the more surprised when the astronomer Karl Schwarzschild presented him with just such an exact solution. Thus, this chapter presents a series of these solutions, beginning with the work of Karl Schwarzschild, Johannes Droste, Willem de Sitter, Alexander Friedmann, Hans Reissner, Gunnar Nordström, and finally, Georges Lemaître.