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GLOBAL PATTERNS

Ernest H. Williams

in The Nature Handbook: A Guide to Observing the Great Outdoors

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195179293
eISBN:
9780199790470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179293.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Natural History and Field Guides

This final chapter presents key observations over broad spatial and temporal scales. The first three are readily observable, at least in the right geographic areas, but the last two — species and ... More


Social Determinants of Health

Michael Marmot and Richard Wilkinson (eds)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198565895
eISBN:
9780191723988
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565895.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The health of populations is related to features of society and its social and economic organization. This crucial fact provides the basis for effective policy-making for improving population health. ... More


Education Policy: Evidence of Equity and Effectiveness

Stephen Gorard

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781447342144
eISBN:
9781447342212
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447342144.001.0001
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

What has been done to achieve fairer and more efficient education systems, and what more can be done in the future? This book provides a comprehensive examination of crucial policy areas for ... More


Direct Calorimetry

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

This chapter describes calorimetry or the direct measurement of heat production, a technique first used by Lavoisier and Paulze for measuring metabolic rates. Bomb calorimetry — a technique for ... More


Open oceans in polar regions

David N. Thomas, G.E. (Tony) Fogg, Peter Convey, Christian H. Fritsen, Josep-Maria Gili, Rolf Gradinger, Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Keith Reid, and David W.H. Walton

in The Biology of Polar Regions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298112
eISBN:
9780191711640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298112.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses the ecology of open oceans in polar regions. Topics covered include gradients in waters, the plankton, the physiological ecology of polar phytoplankton, the zooplankton, squid, ... More


Income Inequality and Psychosocial Pathways to Obesity

Kate E. Pickett and Richard G. Wilkinson

in Insecurity, Inequality, and Obesity in Affluent Societies

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264980
eISBN:
9780191754135
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264980.003.0010
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

Almost all health and social problems that have social gradients (more common further down the social ladder) are very much more common in societies with bigger income differences between rich and ... More


Subordination, Stress, and Obesity

Ruth Bell, Amina Aitsi-Selmi, and Michael Marmot

in Insecurity, Inequality, and Obesity in Affluent Societies

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264980
eISBN:
9780191754135
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264980.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

The distribution of obesity in developed countries follows a social gradient. In developing countries, a similar pattern is emerging as national per capita income rises. The epidemiological evidence ... More


PHASE-TRANSITION PROBLEMS

Andrea Braides

in Gamma-Convergence for Beginners

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198507840
eISBN:
9780191709890
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507840.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

Phase transitions with sharp interfaces are interpreted as segmentation problems, and are approximated with perturbations of non-convex energies (gradient theory of phase transitions). The ... More


SPECTRALLY CONSTRAINED APPROXIMATION

Moody T. Chu and Gene H. Golub

in Inverse Eigenvalue Problems: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566649
eISBN:
9780191718021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566649.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

This chapter shows that the problems of computing least squares approximations for various types of real and symmetric matrices subject to spectral constraints share a common structure. A general ... More


MOUNTAINS

Ernest H. Williams

in The Nature Handbook: A Guide to Observing the Great Outdoors

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195179293
eISBN:
9780199790470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179293.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Natural History and Field Guides

This chapter describes the responses of trees to elevational gradients and the characteristics of plants (and one or two animals) that must cope with cold climates on the tops of mountains. The ... More


Introduction

Thomas J. Stohlgren

in Measuring Plant Diversity: Lessons from the Field

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195172331
eISBN:
9780199790395
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172331.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter reviews why standard methods for plant diversity studies have been slow to develop. It provides specific examples why plant diversity studies are inherently difficult due to issues of ... More


Multiscale Sampling

Thomas J. Stohlgren

in Measuring Plant Diversity: Lessons from the Field

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195172331
eISBN:
9780199790395
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172331.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter reveals that sampling plant diversity at multiple spatial scales may allow for a deeper understanding of relationships between species distributions and composition shifts relative to ... More


Chemical Biomarker Applications to Ecology and Paleoecology

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter provides a brief historical account of the success and limitations of using chemical biomarkers in aquatic ecosystems. It also introduces the general concepts of chemical biomarkers as ... More


Geographic Gradients

Robert R. Dunn, Benoit Guénard, Michael D. Weiser, and Nathan J. Sanders

in Ant Ecology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199544639
eISBN:
9780191720192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199544639.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

One of the key questions in ecology is what drives species diversity patterns. Generally ant diversity decreases with increasing latitude, and elevation. While a host of mechanisms to explain these ... More


The Contrast Period

Alan Gilchrist

in Seeing Black and White

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195187168
eISBN:
9780199786725
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187168.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Chronologically the fourth period of lightness theory, also known as the contrast period, extended from World War II until the end of the 1960s. Ideologically, however, it began at the end of the ... More


Classifying Land by its Use

Scott Eddie

in Landownership in Eastern Germany Before the Great War: A Quantitative Analysis

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198201663
eISBN:
9780191718434
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201663.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter shows a clear East-West gradient in a land yield index by province, based on Kreis data from the land tax cadastre (Grundsteuerveranlagung) of the early 1860s. The province of Saxony ... More


Biodiversity

Kevin J. Gaston

in Conservation Biology for All

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199554232
eISBN:
9780191720666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554232.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Kevin J. Gaston defines biodiversity and lays out obstacles to its better understanding in this chapter. Biodiversity is the variety of life in all of its many manifestations. This variety can ... More


Consistent approximations and approximate gradients

Bijan Mohammadi and Olivier Pironneau

in Applied Shape Optimization for Fluids

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199546909
eISBN:
9780191720482
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546909.003.0009
Subject:
Mathematics, Mathematical Physics

This chapter puts forward a general argument to support the use of approximate gradients within optimization loops integrated with mesh refinements. However, this does not justify all the procedures ... More


Ion pumps and exchangers

PETER K. STYS, STEPHEN G. WAXMAN, and BRUCE R. RANSOM

in The Axon: Structure, Function and Pathophysiology

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195082937
eISBN:
9780199865802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082937.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Excitable cells are dependent on adequate transmembrane ion gradients for normal function. Electrochemical gradients of the major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and anions (Cl- and HCO3 ... More


Microstructural data from powder patterns

Erich H. Kisi and Christopher J. Howard

in Applications of Neutron Powder Diffraction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780198515944
eISBN:
9780191705663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515944.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes how diffraction peaks can be broadened, and sometimes their intensities altered, by microstructural effects. Much of the theory was developed for X-rays, but is also applicable ... More


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