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Senior Officials in the German Federal Administration: Institutional Change and Positional Differentiation

Klaus H. Goetz

in Bureaucratic Elites in Western European States: A Comparative Analysis of Top Officials

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294467
eISBN:
9780191600067
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294468.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This account of institutional change and positional differentiation of senior officials in Germany's Federal administration is presented in five sections. Section I, ‘Senior Officials and the ... More


A Few More Thoughts About Feelings: Graded sentience and tail-wagging in dogs

A. D. (Bud) Craig

in How Do You Feel?: An Interoceptive Moment with Your Neurobiological Self

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156767
eISBN:
9781400852727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156767.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Neurobiology

This concluding chapter addresses some of the larger issues relevant to the ideas presented in this book. These issues include the purpose of feelings, the brain structures required in order to ... More


Begin with ‘If…’

William A. Silverman

in Where's the Evidence?: Debates in Modern Medicine

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192630889
eISBN:
9780191723568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192630889.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a 1989 commentary on randomized clinical trials. It argues that given the uncertainties about the wide extrapolation of results after any and all formal clinical studies, it ... More


The Epistemological Spectrum: At the Interface of Cognitive Science and Conceptual Analysis

David K. Henderson and Terence Horgan

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199608546
eISBN:
9780191729584
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608546.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book argues for several dramatic breaks with the epistemological tradition, while also arguing for significant continuity with epistemology as it has come to be practiced. At important ... More


Marks and Grade Points in Renga

in Murmured Conversations: A Treatise on Poetry and Buddhism by the Poet-Monk Shinkei

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804748636
eISBN:
9780804779395
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804748636.003.0038
Subject:
Literature, World Literature

In waka, renga, and later, haikai, practitioners submitted their work to their teacher or other respected poets for evaluation. The teacher would scrutinize the poem before giving a “grade” for each ... More


CATEGORIZATION

Lawrence M. Zbikowski

in Conceptualizing Music: Cognitive Structure, Theory, and Analysis

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195140231
eISBN:
9780199871278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140231.003.0002
Subject:
Music, Theory, Analysis, Composition

This chapter begins with an overview of research in cognitive science, focusing on processes of categorization. For centuries, writers in the West regarded categories as fixed and immutable, and any ... More


Words with Suffix ‐το‐

Philomen Probert

in Ancient Greek Accentuation: Synchronic Patterns, Frequency Effects, and Prehistory

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199279609
eISBN:
9780191707292
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279609.003.0008
Subject:
Classical Studies, Literary Studies: Classical, Early, and Medieval

This chapter discusses the formation of words with -to-, comparative evidence for their accentuation, and descriptive accounts of their accentuation in Greek. An analysis of simplex words formed ... More


“To Better People Their Land, and to Bring the Country to Produce More Abundantly”: Territory, Trade, Conquest, and the Project of Colony Building on Manhattan Island Under Dutch Rule, 1624–1664

THELMA WILLS FOOTE

in Black and White Manhattan: The History of Racial Formation in Colonial New York City

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195165371
eISBN:
9780199871735
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195165371.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter tracks the Dutch colonization project of Manhattan Island from 1624 to 1664 and shows that following the Dutch invasion, Manhattan Island became a dynamic zone of cross-cultural contact ... More


Preliminary Conclusions

Philomen Probert

in Ancient Greek Accentuation: Synchronic Patterns, Frequency Effects, and Prehistory

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199279609
eISBN:
9780191707292
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279609.003.0011
Subject:
Classical Studies, Literary Studies: Classical, Early, and Medieval

This chapter evaluates the accentual patterns found in words with -ro-, -to-, -no-, and -lo-, particularly the role of frequency. It argues that historically these suffixes form finally accented ... More


The Problem of Individual Variation

Franklin E. Zimring

in American Juvenile Justice

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195181166
eISBN:
9780199943302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181166.003.0016
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter focuses on legal tactics for evaluating young persons during adolescence, a period when kids vary enormously in their skills and maturity. Competence testing makes sense in public law ... More


Social Class and Intergenerational Mobility

Henry Phelps Brown

in The Inequality of Pay

Published in print:
1979
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198851202
eISBN:
9780191596780
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198851200.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter is concerned with intergenerational mobility between occupations, a theme that is further developed in the next chapter. The different sections of this chapter are: The assignment of ... More


Actual Causality

Joseph Y. Halpern

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262035026
eISBN:
9780262336611
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035026.001.0001
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

Causality plays a central role in the way people structure the world; we constantly seek causal explanations for our observations. But what does it even mean that an event C “actually caused” event ... More


Trying to get equal opportunities: women in the higher grades of the LCC and the Civil Service in the first half of the twentieth century

Helen Glew

in Gender, Rhetoric and Regulation: Women's work in the Civil Service and the London County Council, 1900-55

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780719090271
eISBN:
9781526104458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719090271.003.0003
Subject:
History, Social History

Building on chapter one, this chapter examines the similarly gendered nature of women’s work on the higher (executive and administrative) grades in both organisations. It looks at the various types ... More


Policy Bureaucrats

Edward C Page and Bill Jenkins

in Policy Bureaucracy: Government with a Cast of Thousands

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199280414
eISBN:
9780191700118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199280414.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

Civil servants are classified accordingly and the comparisons of each hierarchical position are defined by the power they acquire in the organisation. Those in the higher civil service are referred ... More


The Middle Classes at School

Bernard Porter

in The Absent-Minded Imperialists: Empire, Society, and Culture in Britain

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199299591
eISBN:
9780191700927
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299591.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

Schooling is a good place to begin in looking at the middle classes' attitude towards empire, as it was with their social superiors. It was here that the foundation of their view will have been laid. ... More


The Incommensurability of Inductive Support and Mathematical Probability

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter provides an elaboration on the incommensurability of inductive support and mathematical probability. It begins by presenting the argument from the possibility of anomalies. If inductive ... More


The Grading of Inductive Probability

L. Jonathan Cohen

in The Probable and The Provable

Published in print:
1977
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198244127
eISBN:
9780191680748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198244127.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter investigates the grading of inductive probability. It first evaluates the relation between inductive support and inductive probability. In the assessment of an inductive probability, ... More


Lymphomas

Peter Hoskin and Wendy Makin

in Oncology for Palliative Medicine

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780192628114
eISBN:
9780191730115
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192628114.003.0015
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

This chapter covers lymphomas, which comprises a wide range of diseases, from very indolent low-grade lymphomas to highly aggressive conditions such as lymphoblastic lymphoma. The definitions of the ... More


Youth in Families, Schools, and Communities

JOY G. DRYFOOS

in Safe Passage: Making It through Adolescence in a Risky Society: What Parents, Schools, and Communities Can Do

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195137859
eISBN:
9780199846948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137859.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter reviews the important facts and figures about the life styles and views of adolescents today. It looks at the teenage population as a whole, and their families, schools, and communities. ... More


Music Assessment for Better Ensembles

Brian P. Shaw

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190603144
eISBN:
9780190603182
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190603144.001.0001
Subject:
Music, Performing Practice/Studies

Assessment is central to ensemble music. Yet, teachers do not always have the expertise to harness its potential to improve rehearsals and performances, and promote and document student learning. ... More


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