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## Pseudo-Symmetry

*Peter Müller*

### in Crystal Structure Refinement: A Crystallographer's Guide to SHELXL

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- September 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198570769
- eISBN:
- 9780191718809
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570769.003.0006
- Subject:
- Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Having more than one molecule in the asymmetric unit occurs predominantly in space groups of low symmetry. In most of these cases, the independent molecules are not related by simple symmetry ... More

## Symmetries III: Global symmetries in field theory

*Anthony Duncan*

### in The Conceptual Framework of Quantum Field Theory

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- January 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780199573264
- eISBN:
- 9780191743313
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573264.003.0014
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter examines the role of global symmetries in local quantum field theories. It shows that exact global symmetries are rare — indeed, if we take gravitational effects into account, probably ... More

## Symmetries IV: Local symmetries in field theory

*Anthony Duncan*

### in The Conceptual Framework of Quantum Field Theory

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- January 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780199573264
- eISBN:
- 9780191743313
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573264.003.0015
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter examines the additional rich structure introduced when a local quantum field theory displays a local gauge symmetry. It shows how such symmetries require a generalization of the ... More

## Internal symmetry and gauge interactions

*Ta-Pei Cheng*

### in Einstein's Physics: Atoms, Quanta, and Relativity - Derived, Explained, and Appraised

- Published in print:
- 2013
- Published Online:
- May 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780199669912
- eISBN:
- 9780191744488
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669912.003.0016
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

We review gauge invariance in classical electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics, showing that the gauge transformation must involve a spacetime-dependent phase change of the wavefunction for a ... More

## The Non-Linear σ-Model: An Example Of a Non-Linear Symmetry

*JEAN ZINN-JUSTIN*

### in Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena

- Published in print:
- 2002
- Published Online:
- January 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198509233
- eISBN:
- 9780191708732
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509233.003.0014
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter considers models possessing global symmetries non-linearly realized on the fields. This implies, in particular, that under an in infinitesimal group transformation, the variation of the ... More

## Lagrange formalism in field theory

*Iosif L. Buchbinder and Ilya L. Shapiro*

### in Introduction to Quantum Field Theory with Applications to Quantum Gravity

- Published in print:
- 2021
- Published Online:
- April 2021
- ISBN:
- 9780198838319
- eISBN:
- 9780191874666
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198838319.003.0003
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter is devoted to a general discussion of classical field theory. It presents the minimum information required about classical fields for the subsequent treatment of quantum theory in the ... More

## Classical Electromagnetism

*Peter Mann*

### in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Dynamics

- Published in print:
- 2018
- Published Online:
- August 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780198822370
- eISBN:
- 9780191861253
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198822370.003.0027
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

In this chapter, Noether’s theorem as a classical field theory is presented and the properties of variations are again discussed for fields (i.e. field variations, space variations, time variations, ... More

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