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Epidemiology Expands: Germs, Genes, and the (Social) Environment (1900–1950)

Nancy Krieger

in Epidemiology and the People’s Health: Theory and Context

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195383874
eISBN:
9780199893607
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195383874.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Chapter 4 encompasses the first half of the 20th century, whose contending epidemiologic theories of disease distribution newly grappled with germs, genes, and the (social) environment. The chapter ... More


Two Revolutions

Stephen J. Kunitz

in The Health of Populations: General Theories and Practical Realities

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195308075
eISBN:
9780199863846
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308075.003.01
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The two revolutions of this chapter's title are the Industrial Revolution that began in England in the late 18th century, and the Epistemological Revolution that is conventionally attributed to the ... More


Monocausalists, Multicausalists, and Germ Theory

Irvine Loudon

in The Tragedy of Childbed Fever

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198204992
eISBN:
9780191676444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204992.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter examines the impact of the discovery of bacteria on English medical authorities' view on puerperal disease during the 19th century. The arrival of germ theory intensified the debate ... More


The Germ Theory and the Prehistory of “Pattern Differentiation and Treatment Determination”

Sean Hsiang-lin Lei

in Neither Donkey nor Horse: Medicine in the Struggle over China's Modernity

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226169880
eISBN:
9780226169910
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226169910.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Chapter 8 examines the crucial debate on “the Unification of Nomenclature of Chinese Diseases,” the first and most important step in the efforts by the Institute of National Medicine to scientize ... More


AIDS: The Disease That Fits

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0078
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

AIDS unites the germ theory of disease with systems thinking. AIDS could only arise in the late twentieth century. The encounter with HIV/AIDS has brought tremendous inspiration to virologists' ... More


Eras in Epidemiology: The Evolution of Ideas

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195300666
eISBN:
9780199863754
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300666.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book provides an historical overview of epidemiology and its evolution. This book includes a section of conceptual chapters, including chapters on the relation of concepts to causes, the concept ... More


Knowledge in the Time of Cholera: The Struggle over American Medicine in the Nineteenth Century

Owen Whooley

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226017464
eISBN:
9780226017778
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226017778.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Vomiting. Diarrhea. Dehydration. Death. Confusion. In 1832, the arrival of cholera in the United States created widespread panic throughout the country. For the rest of the century, epidemics swept ... More


Cancer under the Microscope

Agnes Arnold-Forster

in The Cancer Problem: Malignancy in Nineteenth-Century Britain

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198866145
eISBN:
9780191897726
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198866145.003.0007
Subject:
History, Social History

This chapter reveals how mapping was only one of the tools deployed to decode the ‘cancer problem’ in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Running parallel to the activities of Haviland, Moore, ... More


Cancer and Contagion

Robin Wolfe Scheffler

in A Contagious Cause: The American Hunt for Cancer Viruses and the Rise of Molecular Medicine

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780226458892
eISBN:
9780226628400
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226628400.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Chapter 1 discusses how views of cancer as a contagious disease changed in response to the articulation of germ theory in the late nineteenth century. At first, many doctors and microbiologists ... More


From the Ideology of the Township to the Gospel of Germs

Werner Troesken

in The Pox of Liberty: How the Constitution Left Americans Rich, Free, and Prone to Infection

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226922171
eISBN:
9780226922195
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226922195.003.0002
Subject:
History, Economic History

This chapter describes how the evolution of three ideologies simultaneously influenced economic development and the provision of public health in American history. The first of these was the ideology ... More


A Germ Theory of Genes

Nathaniel Comfort

in The Science of Human Perfection: How Genes Became the Heart of American Medicine

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300169911
eISBN:
9780300188875
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300169911.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

This chapter argues that with false starts and sometimes misguided efforts, academic genetics became integrated with general medicine. The chasm separating the two disciplines was closed by means of ... More


Ascendant Ecology

Frank N. Egerton

in Roots of Ecology: Antiquity to Haeckel

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780520271746
eISBN:
9780520953635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520271746.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Darwin's Journal of Researches,coral reef book, and barnacle books contain significant ecological observations, but his revolutionary On the Origin of Speciesis a landmark ecological work. These and ... More


Darwin’s Impact on the Medical Sciences

Fabio Zampieri

in Integrating Evolutionary Biology into Medical Education: for maternal and child healthcare students, clinicians, and scientists

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198814153
eISBN:
9780191851803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198814153.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Developmental Biology

In early nineteenth century medicine, the concepts of organic evolution and natural selection emerged in different contexts, partly anticipating Darwinian revolution. In particular, the anatomical ... More


“Smallpox Is Dead”: The Public Health Campaign to (Almost) Eradicate a Species

Melanie Armstrong

in Germ Wars: The Politics of Microbes and America's Landscape of Fear

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780520292765
eISBN:
9780520966147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520292765.003.0002
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

In the mid-twentieth century, a global war against smallpox demonstrated how microbial nature might be managed according to human desires. The germ theory of disease identified microbes as ... More


Fighting the Yellow Scourge:: Initial Sanitation Reforms in Cuba

in Epidemic Invasions: Yellow Fever and the Limits of Cuban Independence, 1878-1930

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226218113
eISBN:
9780226218137
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226218137.003.0003
Subject:
History, Latin American History

After decades of growing concerns in the United States for Havana's endemic yellow fever, the war of 1898 had put U.S. authorities in a position to take action. During the first two years of the ... More


“I Gotta Get Out of This Place”: Workplace Stress as a Threat to Public Health

Sandra L. Bloom and Brian Farragher

in Destroying Sanctuary: The Crisis in Human Service Delivery Systems

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195374803
eISBN:
9780199865420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374803.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Health and Mental Health

Most people may not recognize that stress has become a major risk for a wide variety of health and mental health problems, although when surveyed most people talk passionately about the stress they ... More


A Contagious Cause: The American Hunt for Cancer Viruses and the Rise of Molecular Medicine

Robin Wolfe Scheffler

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780226458892
eISBN:
9780226628400
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226628400.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

A Contagious Cause follows the American hunt for human cancer viruses throughout the twentieth century, an effort whose scale exceeded that of the Human Genome Project. Today, viral infection is ... More


“A Means of Physical Culture” the Redefinition of Municipal Pools during the 1890s

Jeff Wiltse

in Contested Waters: A Social History of Swimming Pools in America

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807831007
eISBN:
9781469604664
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807888988_wiltse.6
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter examines the transformation of municipal swimming pools in the United States during the mid- to late 1890s. It explains how popular acceptance of the germ theory of disease transmission ... More


The Superorganism

Robert E. Page

in The Art of the Bee: Shaping the Environment from Landscapes to Societies

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780197504147
eISBN:
9780197504178
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197504147.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Insect societies have been likened to superorganisms since the early 20th century because they are organized around defense, nutrition, and reproduction, like our own bodies. Like individual ... More


Anthropologia Sexualis, Universalism, and the Macro Environments of Sex

Benjamin Kahan

in The Book of Minor Perverts: Sexology, Etiology, and the Emergences of Sexuality

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780226607818
eISBN:
9780226608006
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226608006.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter argues that in spite of the dominance of the dynamic, humoral theory of the body for thousands of years scholars still have little understanding of what role humoralism plays in the ... More


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