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The Genetics of Exotic Bird Introductions

Tim M. Blackburn, Julie L. Lockwood, and Phillip Cassey

in Avian Invasions: The Ecology and Evolution of Exotic Birds

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232543
eISBN:
9780191715983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232543.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter considers the long-term outcomes of exotic bird establishment in terms of the propensity for evolution in exotic bird populations. It shows that exotic birds have occasionally lost ... More


Negative Selection and the Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Natural selection is not the only evolutionary “force” that can alter frequencies of genetic variants; random genetic drift (a sampling process) persistently changes the gene pool of populations, ... More


The extinction vortex, is genetic variation related to extinction?

Jacob Höglund

in Evolutionary Conservation Genetics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199214211
eISBN:
9780191706660
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214211.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter begins with a brief introduction to the focus of this book, which is the idea that extinction of species is somehow related to loss of genetic variation. Theoretical considerations ... More


Natural Selection and Genetic Drift: Their Role in Evolutionary Change

John O. Reiss

in Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explores the fundamental distinction between natural selection and genetic drift, starting from a consideration of how they are measured, and suggests that it may not be as fundamental ... More


Extraordinary Population Structure among the Baining of New Britain

Jason A. Wilder and Michael F. Hammer

in Population Genetics, Linguistics, and Culture History in the Southwest Pacific

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195300307
eISBN:
9780199790142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300307.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines with four unlinked loci the extent of divergence between two linguistically related Baining groups in New Britain. Although they are linguistically related and are less than 100 ... More


The horizontal genome

Antonio Fontdevila

in The Dynamic Genome: A Darwinian Approach

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199541379
eISBN:
9780191728532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199541379.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Developmental Biology

This chapter reports data, mainly from comparative genomics, which confirm a long-suspected high rate of interspecies gene flow due to hybridisation. It also reports the present interest in hybrids ... More


Evolutionary genetics

Robert L. Perlman

in Evolution and Medicine

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199661718
eISBN:
9780191774720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661718.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Evolution is often thought of in genetic terms, as a change in allele frequencies and in the phenotypes associated with these alleles in populations over time. Several evolutionary processes in ... More


Quantifying genetic variation at the molecular level

Asher D. Cutter

in A Primer of Molecular Population Genetics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198838944
eISBN:
9780191874826
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198838944.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 3, “Quantifying genetic variation at the molecular level,” introduces quantitative methods for measuring variation directly in DNA sequences to help decipher fundamental properties of ... More


Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

John Reiss

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

More than two centuries ago, William Paley introduced his famous metaphor of the universe as a watch made by the Creator. For him, the exquisite structure of the universe necessitated a designer. ... More


Genetics and evolutionary ecology

Otso Ovaskainen, Henrik Johan de Knegt, and Maria del Mar Delgado

in Quantitative Ecology and Evolutionary Biology: Integrating models with data

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198714866
eISBN:
9780191783210
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198714866.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

This chapter introduces mathematical and statistical modelling approaches in genetics and evolutionary ecology. It starts with a conceptual section, continues with mathematical and statistical ... More


Changes in allele and genotype frequency

Glenn-Peter Sætre and Mark Ravinet

in Evolutionary Genetics: Concepts, Analysis, and Practice

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198830917
eISBN:
9780191868993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830917.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

Evolution is the change in heritable traits of populations over successive generations. At the molecular level this translates into changes in their genetic composition. A general theoretical ... More


Evolutionary genetics of small populations

Richard Frankham, Jonathan D. Ballou, Katherine Ralls, Mark D. B. Eldridge, Michele R. Dudash, Charles B. Fenster, Robert C. Lacy, and Paul Sunnucks

in Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198783398
eISBN:
9780191826313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198783398.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Genetic management of fragmented populations involves the application of evolutionary genetic theory and knowledge to alleviate problems due to inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity in small ... More


The Importance of Experimental Studies in Evolutionary Biology

Douglas J. Futuyma and Albert F. Bennett

in Experimental Evolution: Concepts, Methods, and Applications of Selection Experiments

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247666
eISBN:
9780520944473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247666.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers the place of experimental studies in evolutionary biology, first describing the advantages of experimental evolution and contrasting it with other approaches. The special ... More


Evolutionary Theory

Peter Gluckman, Alan Beedle, Tatjana Buklijas, Felicia Low, and Mark Hanson

in Principles of Evolutionary Medicine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199663927
eISBN:
9780191823206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199663927.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Evolutionary science explains the huge diversity of present and past life forms. Heritable variation between particular characteristics (traits) of individuals causes differential reproductive ... More


Neutral Evolution in One- and Two-Locus Systems

Bruce Walsh and Michael Lynch

in Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198830870
eISBN:
9780191868986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830870.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter reviews the population-genetic theory of neutral alleles in finite populations, examining the probabilities and times to loss or fixation, summary statistics for molecular variation, ... More


Chance in the Modern Synthesis

Anya Plutynski, Kenneth Blake Vernon, Lucas John Matthews, and Daniel Molter

in Chance in Evolution

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226401744
eISBN:
9780226401911
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226401911.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The “modern synthesis” in evolutionary biology involved agreement upon a core theoretical framework in biology, the collection, integration and popular communication of a variety of different types ... More


The Reference Class Problem in Evolutionary Biology: Distinguishing Selection from Drift

Michael Strevens

in Chance in Evolution

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226401744
eISBN:
9780226401911
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226401911.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Evolutionary biology distinguishes differences in survival and reproduction rates due to selection from those due to drift. The distinction is usually thought to be founded in probabilistic facts: a ... More


Really Statistical Explanations and Genetic Drift

Marc Lange

in Because Without Cause: Non-Causal Explanations in Science and Mathematics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780190269487
eISBN:
9780190269500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190269487.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

This chapter introduces a new variety of non-causal explanation, dubbed “really statistical (RS) explanation.” Many important examples of RS explanations drawn from scientific practice are given, ... More


From Populations to Clines in Modern Statistical Genetics

Chris Spencer

in Population in the Human Sciences: Concepts, Models, Evidence

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199688203
eISBN:
9780191767500
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688203.003.0018
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Genome-wide association studies enable alleles carried by individuals in natural populations to be correlated at a continuum of scales, from close to distant relatives across populations. A central ... More


Stochasticity due to finiteness

Liz Pásztor, Zoltán Botta-Dukát, Gabriella Magyar, Tamás Czárán, and Géza Meszéna

in Theory-Based Ecology: A Darwinian approach

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780199577859
eISBN:
9780191823787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577859.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The inherent stochastic nature of individual life histories implies that finite populations always carry a risk of going extinct, even if their long-term growth potential is positive. The ... More


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