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Evolutionary processes in community ecology

Jacintha Ellers

in Community Ecology: Processes, Models, and Applications

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199228973
eISBN:
9780191711169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228973.003.00012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The disciplines of community ecology and evolutionary biology have fundamentally different perspectives, but share a common interest in the maintenance and effects of diversity. An emerging field of ... More


Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley Faeth

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Symbiotic relationships between plants and fungi are extremely common in nature, ranging from highly parasitic to closely mutualistic. Grasses, which are common and ecologically important components ... More


Genotypic Specificity of Grass-Endophyte Interactions

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley H. Faeth

in Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

For ongoing coevolution of the grass-endophyte symbiosis through the agents of natural selection, there must be genetic variation within populations for both host and endophyte. The breeding systems ... More


Biodiversity and biogeography

Peter Hogarth

in The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568704
eISBN:
9780191717536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568704.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter examines the intersecting questions of biodiversity and biogeography: what determines the diversity and distribution of mangrove and seagrass species throughout the world? Topics covered ... More


Contributions of Population Origins and Gene Flow to the Diversity of Neutral and Malaria Selected Autosomal Genetic Loci of Pacific Island Populations

J. Koji Lum

in Population Genetics, Linguistics, and Culture History in the Southwest Pacific

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195300307
eISBN:
9780199790142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300307.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter simultaneously deals with the effects of differential selection and with population history. It reviews three studies of either neutral or malaria selected autosomal loci to illustrate ... More


Biodiversity

Kevin J. Gaston

in Conservation Biology for All

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199554232
eISBN:
9780191720666
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554232.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Kevin J. Gaston defines biodiversity and lays out obstacles to its better understanding in this chapter. Biodiversity is the variety of life in all of its many manifestations. This variety can ... More


Inbreeding, geographic subdivision, and gene flow

Jacob Höglund

in Evolutionary Conservation Genetics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199214211
eISBN:
9780191706660
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214211.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter outlines the theory of inbreeding including a brief account on the theory of population subdivision and gene flow. This is of relevance to conservation issues because habitat loss and ... More


Parasitism in the Endemic Galάpagos Dove (Zenaida galapagoensis) and Its Relation to Host Genetic Diversity and Immune Response

Diego Santiago-Alarcon, Robert E. Ricklefs, and Patricia G. Parker

in Emerging Avian Disease

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780520272378
eISBN:
9780520952201
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520272378.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

Studies on model organisms have shown that individuals with lower genetic diversity are more susceptible to pathogens and suffer greater fitness costs than less inbred individuals. We investigated ... More


Neolithic cattle domestication as seen from ancient DNA

Ruth Bollongino and Joachim Burger

in Going Over: The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in North-West Europe

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264140
eISBN:
9780191734489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264140.003.0009
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

Studies on modern cattle populations demonstrate the relations of the two major cattle breeds, the humpless taurine cattle (B. Taurus) and the Asian humped zebu (B. indicus). Studies by Loftus et al. ... More


Biodiversity and Conservation

Thomas H. Boyle and Edward F. Anderson

in Cacti: Biology and Uses

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520231573
eISBN:
9780520927889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520231573.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Cacti inhabit a wide diversity of climatic regions and ecosystems. Like many other plants, cacti populations are seriously threatened by habitat destruction and other human activities such as illegal ... More


Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations

Richard Frankham, Jonathan D. Ballou, Katherine Ralls, Mark Eldridge, Michele R. Dudash, Charles B. Fenster, Robert C. Lacy, and Paul Sunnucks

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198783398
eISBN:
9780191826313
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198783398.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

The biological diversity of the planet is being rapidly depleted due to the direct and indirect consequences of human activity. As the size of animal and plant populations decrease and fragmentation ... More


Breeding Structure of Neotropical Dry-Forest Tree Species in Fragmented Landscapes

James L. Hamrick and Victoria J. Apsit

in Biodiversity Conservation in Costa Rica: Learning the Lessons in a Seasonal Dry Forest

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520223097
eISBN:
9780520937772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520223097.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter is concerned with plant breeding structure in fragmented landscapes. It first examines the theoretical effects of fragmentation on the genetic composition of forest tree populations. It ... More


Evolutionary genetics of small populations

Richard Frankham, Jonathan D. Ballou, Katherine Ralls, Mark D. B. Eldridge, Michele R. Dudash, Charles B. Fenster, Robert C. Lacy, and Paul Sunnucks

in Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198783398
eISBN:
9780191826313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198783398.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Genetic management of fragmented populations involves the application of evolutionary genetic theory and knowledge to alleviate problems due to inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity in small ... More


Loss of genetic diversity reduces ability to adapt

Richard Frankham, Jonathan D. Ballou, Katherine Ralls, Mark D. B. Eldridge, Michele R. Dudash, Charles B. Fenster, Robert C. Lacy, and Paul Sunnucks

in Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198783398
eISBN:
9780191826313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198783398.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Environmental change is a ubiquitous feature of the conditions faced by species, so they must either evolve, move to avoid threats, or perish. Species require genetic diversity to evolve to cope with ... More


Populations, recruitment and competition

Hans Kruuk

in Otters: Ecology, behaviour and conservation

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565871
eISBN:
9780191728228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565871.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the methodology of assessing populations, surveys of faeces (spraints) and dens, use of radio-nuclides, and direct observations. Estimates of population densities are presented ... More


Managing gene flow among isolated population fragments. II. Management based on kinship

Richard Frankham, Jonathan D. Ballou, Katherine Ralls, Mark D. B. Eldridge, Michele R. Dudash, Charles B. Fenster, Robert C. Lacy, and Paul Sunnucks

in Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198783398
eISBN:
9780191826313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198783398.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

With more detailed genetic information, more precise genetic management of fragmented populations can be achieved, leading to improved retention of genetic diversity and lower inbreeding. Using mean ... More


The Virosphere

Ricard Solé and Santiago F. Elena

in Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691158846
eISBN:
9780691185118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158846.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter presents an introduction to viruses. Viruses have played a major role not only in evolutionary history but also in recent history. They have shaped human genomes and physiological ... More


Maintaining Crop Diversity On-Farm and Off

Stephen B. Brush

in Farmers' Bounty: Locating Crop Diversity in the Contemporary World

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300100495
eISBN:
9780300130140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300100495.003.0009
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter discusses the conservation of crop resources, with a focus on in situ, or on-farm, conservation. A number of different strategies are proposed to promote in situ conservation. One ... More


Animal Personality and Conservation Biology The Importance of Behavioral Diversity

Brian R. Smith and Daniel T. Blumstein

in Animal Personalities: Behavior, Physiology, and Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226922058
eISBN:
9780226922065
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226922065.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Animal Behavior / Behavioral Ecology

This chapter discusses how personality and behavioral diversity are important determinants of genetic diversity and the long-term persistence of populations, and also describes the anthropogenic ... More


Introduction

Richard Frankham, Jonathan D. Ballou, Katherine Ralls, Mark D. B. Eldridge, Michele R. Dudash, Charles B. Fenster, Robert C. Lacy, and Paul Sunnucks

in Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198783398
eISBN:
9780191826313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198783398.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Genetic management of fragmented populations is one of the major, largely unaddressed issues in biodiversity conservation. Many species across the planet have fragmented distributions with small ... More


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