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Modeling Reality: How Computers Mirror Life

Iwo Bialynicki-Birula and Iwona Bialynicka-Birula

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198531005
eISBN:
9780191713033
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198531005.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This book covers a wide range of subjects concerning the use of computer modeling to solve a diverse set of problems. The book covers some advanced topics (cellular automata, Shannon measure of ... More


BOTTOM‐UP AND DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES

Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen

in Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195374049
eISBN:
9780199871889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374049.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter surveys bottom‐up approaches to the development of artificial moral agents. These approaches apply methods from machine learning, Kohlberg's theory of moral development, and techniques ... More


Global optimization strategies

Kenneth Shankland and William I. F. David

in Structure Determination from Powder Diffraction Data

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199205530
eISBN:
9780191718076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199205530.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Global optimisation methods that involve the assessment of multiple trial crystal structures against measured diffraction data offer a powerful alternative to Direct methods of structure solution. ... More


12 Algorithms for estimating parametric nonlinear models

Timo Teräsvirta, Dag Tjøstheim, and W. J. Granger

in Modelling Nonlinear Economic Time Series

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199587148
eISBN:
9780191595387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587148.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter contains an introduction to estimating parametric nonlinear models. Estimation has to be carried out using numerical algorithms. Both algorithms not using derivatives of the function to ... More


Genetic Algorithms: A 30-Year Perspective

Kenneth De Jong

in Perspectives on Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162929
eISBN:
9780197562116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162929.003.0006
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

I continue to be surprised and pleased by the dramatic growth of interest in and applications of genetic algorithms (GAs) in recent years. This growth, in turn, has placed a certain amount of ... More


Needles in Haystacks

Chris Bleakley

in Poems That Solve Puzzles: The History and Science of Algorithms

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198853732
eISBN:
9780191888168
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853732.003.0006
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Chapter 6 examines one of the greatest unsolved challenges in mathematics - the problem of finding the best solution from a large number of possibilities. The Traveling Salesman Problem requires that ... More


Enzyme Genetic Programming

Michael A. Lones and Andy M. Tyrrell

in Cellular Computing

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195155396
eISBN:
9780197561942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195155396.003.0007
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

Programming is a process of optimization; taking a specification, which tells us what we want, and transforming it into an implementation, a program, which causes the target system to do exactly ... More


Epistemic Warrant: Humans and Computers *

Tyler Burge

in Cognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, Reflection: Philosophical Essays, Volume 3

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199672028
eISBN:
9780191751929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672028.003.0020
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

‘Epistemic Warrant: Humans and Computers’ (2011) discusses epistemic warrant for inferential transitions, arguing that warrants for many deductive and nearly all inductive propositional transitions ... More


Applications of Genetic Algorithms to the Determination of Reaction Mechanisms

John Ross, Igor Schreiber, and Marcel O. Vlad

in Determination of Complex Reaction Mechanisms: Analysis of Chemical, Biological, and Genetic Networks

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195178685
eISBN:
9780197562277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195178685.003.0012
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The mathematical computational method of genetic algorithms is frequently useful in solving optimization problems in systems with many parameters, for example, a search for suitable parameters of a ... More


An Interview with John Holland

Philip Husbands, Owen Holland, and Michael Wheeler

in The Mechanical Mind in History

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262083775
eISBN:
9780262256384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262083775.003.0016
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

John Holland studied physics at MIT and then worked for IBM, where he was involved in some of the first research on adaptive artificial neural networks. He went on to the University of Michigan for ... More


Genetics and self-organization build the cortex

Edmund T. Rolls

in Cerebral Cortex: Principles of Operation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198784852
eISBN:
9780191836299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198784852.003.0019
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

Gene-based variation operated on by natural selection to promote fitness provides a basis for the design of the cortex during evolution. It is proposed that genes specify a relatively small number of ... More


Good Old-Fashioned AI and Genetic Algorithms: An Exercise in Translation Scholarship

Herbert A. Simon

in Perspectives on Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162929
eISBN:
9780197562116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162929.003.0013
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

In both the GA and GOFAI traditions, invention or design tasks are viewed as instances of problem solving. To invent or design is to describe an object that performs, in a range of environments, ... More


From Genetic Evolution to Engineering Optimization

Yaser Khalifa

in Darwin's Roadmap to the Curriculum: Evolutionary Studies in Higher Education

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780190624965
eISBN:
9780190051679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190624965.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter focuses on one of the main members of the evolutionary algorithms class called genetic algorithms (GAs). GAs mimic the process of sexual reproduction and survival of the fittest in ... More


Evo-devo

Tony J. Prescott and Leah Krubitzer

in Living machines: A handbook of research in biomimetics and biohybrid systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780199674923
eISBN:
9780191842702
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199674923.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Development

This chapter explores how principles underlying natural evo-devo (evolution and development) continue to inspire the design of artificial systems from models of cell growth through to simulated ... More


Epilogue

Eric Bonabeau, Marco Dorigo, and Guy Theraulaz

in Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial Systems

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195131581
eISBN:
9780197561485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195131581.003.0012
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

After seven chapters of swarm-based approaches, where do we stand? First of all, it is clear that social insects and, more generally, natural systems, can bring much insight into the design of ... More


John H. Holland, Facetwise Models, and Economy of Thought

David E. Goldberg

in Perspectives on Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162929
eISBN:
9780197562116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162929.003.0008
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

Noted complex adaptive system researcher John H. Holland now receives acclaim from many quarters, but it is important to understand that this man and his ideas have been controversial since the ... More


Decision Making

Dana H. Ballard

in Brain Computation as Hierarchical Abstraction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028615
eISBN:
9780262323819
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028615.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

Acting in the world in the situation that the agent is aware of requires command of decision options. Basic decision can be handled with barrier models, but social decisions require Game Theory. ... More


Evolution and Cognitive Development

Robert S. Siegler

in Emerging Minds: The Process of Change in Children’s Thinking

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195077872
eISBN:
9780197561379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195077872.003.0005
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

The central argument of this chapter is that concepts that have helped biologists understand the evolution of species can also help cognitive developmentalists understand the growth of children’s ... More


Moore's Law, Artificial Evolution, and the Fate of Humanity

Douglas R. Hofstadter

in Perspectives on Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162929
eISBN:
9780197562116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162929.003.0014
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

More or less simultaneously in the closing year of the twentieth century, there appeared a curious coterie of books whose central, sensational-sounding claim was that humanity was on the verge of ... More


Customer journeys and Markov chains

Peter Grindrod CBE

in Mathematical Underpinnings of Analytics: Theory and Applications

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198725091
eISBN:
9780191792526
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198725091.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Analysis, Probability / Statistics

This chapter considers Markov models for customer behavioural change and hence customer value change based on longitudinal customer data. It considers the use of genetic algorithms in calibrating ... More


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