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Generative Probabilistic Modeling: Understanding Causal Sensorimotor Integration

Sethu Vijayakumar, Timothy Hospedales, and Adrian Haith

in Sensory Cue Integration

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195387247
eISBN:
9780199918379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387247.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter argues that many aspects of human perception are best explained by adopting a modeling approach in which experimental subjects are assumed to possess a full generative probabilistic ... More


Networks: An Introduction

Mark Newman

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199206650
eISBN:
9780191594175
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199206650.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The scientific study of networks, including computer networks, social networks, and biological networks, has received an enormous amount of interest in the last few years. The rise of the Internet ... More


Models of network formation: A discussion of models of the formation of networks, particularly models of networks that grow by addition of vertices, such as the World Wide Web or citation networks

M. E. J. Newman

in Networks: An Introduction

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199206650
eISBN:
9780191594175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199206650.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Generative network models model the mechanisms by which networks are created. The idea behind models such as these is to explore hypothesized generative mechanisms to see what structures they ... More


The Framework

Timothy J. O’Donnell and Noah D. Goodman

in Productivity and Reuse In Language: A Theory of Linguistic Computation and Storage

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262028844
eISBN:
9780262326803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028844.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter consists of four parts. The first section discusses the ideas behind the modeling framework adopted in the book---structured probabilistic generative models. The second section discusses ... More


Essentialism as a Generative Theory of Classification

Bob Rehder

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Essentialism is the view that kinds are defined by underlying properties or characteristics (an essence) that is shared by all category members and by members of no other ... More


Semi-Supervised Text Classification Using EM

Nigam Kamal, McCallum Andrew, and Mitchell Tom

in Semi-Supervised Learning

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262033589
eISBN:
9780262255899
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033589.003.0003
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter explores the use of generative models for semi-supervised learning with labeled and unlabeled data in domains of text classification. The widely used naive Bayes classifier for ... More


Top-Down Predictions Determine Perceptions

Martin V. Butz and Esther F. Kutter

in How the Mind Comes into Being: Introducing Cognitive Science from a Functional and Computational Perspective

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198739692
eISBN:
9780191834462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198739692.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures, Cognitive Psychology

While bottom-up visual processing is important, the brain integrates this information with top-down, generative expectations from very early on in the visual processing hierarchy. Indeed, our brain ... More


Formalization of the Models and Inference

Timothy J. O’Donnell and Noah D. Goodman

in Productivity and Reuse In Language: A Theory of Linguistic Computation and Storage

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262028844
eISBN:
9780262326803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028844.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter the mathematical details of the models studied in this book. It also discusses the inference algorithms used for each of the models and various other issues of practical concern for the ... More


Learning Faster

Reza Shadmehr and Sandro Mussa-Ivaldi

in Biological Learning and Control: How the Brain Builds Representations, Predicts Events, and Makes Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016964
eISBN:
9780262301282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016964.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter presents some useful ideas on how to encourage the process of learning. It illustrates that speeding up learning can occur if the learner becomes more sensitive to prediction errors. ... More


Probabilistic Semi-Supervised Clustering with Constraints

Basu Sugato, Bilenko Mikhail, Banerjee Arindam, and Mooney Raymond

in Semi-Supervised Learning

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262033589
eISBN:
9780262255899
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033589.003.0005
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter discusses a problem resulting from certain clustering tasks from which limited supervision is obtained in the form of pairwise constraints—semi-supervised clustering. Semi-supervised ... More


Generative models

Thomas P. Trappenberg

in Fundamentals of Machine Learning

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198828044
eISBN:
9780191883873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198828044.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter presents an introduction to the important topic of building generative models. These are models that are aimed to understand the variety of a class such as cars or trees. A generative ... More


The Mechanisms and Benefits of a Future-Oriented Brain

Giovanni Pezzulo

in Seeing the Future: Theoretical Perspectives on Future-Oriented Mental Time Travel

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
June 2016
ISBN:
9780190241537
eISBN:
9780190241551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190241537.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The ubiquity of predictive processing in the brain suggests that it is functionally oriented toward the future. Mechanisms for predictive processing such as internal generative models can give rise ... More


Major Contributions of Econophysics to Financial Economics

Franck Jovanovic and Christophe Schinckus

in Econophysics and Financial Economics: An Emerging Dialogue

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780190205034
eISBN:
9780190205065
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190205034.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Chapter 5 identifies what the potential contributions of econophysics to financial economics. First of all, the way econophysics models are or could be used in trading rooms is discussed. Then the ... More


Models of network formation

Mark Newman

in Networks

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198805090
eISBN:
9780191843235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805090.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter describes models of the growth or formation of networks, with a particular focus on preferential attachment models. It starts with a discussion of the classic preferential attachment ... More


Isaak Babel's Portrait of the Artist as a Former Jew

in The Jewish Persona in the European Imagination: A Case of Russian Literature

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804770552
eISBN:
9780804775625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804770552.003.0017
Subject:
Society and Culture, Jewish Studies

This chapter examines the place of the generative model of “the Jews” in Isaak Babel's artistic self-image through the close reading of his two stories, “Moi pervyi gus” and “Guy de Maupassant.” It ... More


Archetypal Elaboration

in The Jewish Persona in the European Imagination: A Case of Russian Literature

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804770552
eISBN:
9780804775625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804770552.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Jewish Studies

This chapter examines the archetypal description of the Jews in Christian imagination. It explains that the Jews are considered homologous to Satan and Eve by virtue of their embodiment of the “bad ... More


The Helper

in The Jewish Persona in the European Imagination: A Case of Russian Literature

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804770552
eISBN:
9780804775625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804770552.003.0011
Subject:
Society and Culture, Jewish Studies

This chapter examines the role of the Jewish character of Iankel as a helper-figure in Nikolai Gogol's “Taras Bul'ba.” It explains the archetypal conception of “the Jews” as keepers of knowledge and ... More


Continuous Dimensions and Distributional Learning

Vsevolod Kapatsinski

in Changing Minds Changing Tools: From Learning Theory to Language Acquisition to Language Change

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780262037860
eISBN:
9780262346313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262037860.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes the evidence for the existence of dimensions, focusing on the difference between the difficulty of attention shifts to a previously relevant vs. irrelevant dimension. It ... More


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