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The Genetics of Evolutionary Novelties

Günter P. Wagner

in Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156460
eISBN:
9781400851461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156460.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines the molecular genetics of evolutionary novelties. In particular, it investigates which molecular mechanisms might be involved in the origination of novel gene regulatory ... More


Expression between Duplicate Genes: Genome‐Wide Analysis

Xun Gu

in Statistical Theory and Methods for Evolutionary Genomics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199213269
eISBN:
9780191594762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213269.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

Expression divergence between duplicate genes has long been a subject of great interest to geneticists and evolutionists. Ohno proposed that expression divergence is the first step in the functional ... More


 Evolution of the DNA World and the Chance Events That Accompanied It: More about Complexity

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

First life-forms appeared at least as early as 3.5 billion years ago in the form of prokaryotes. Some of these species developed oxygenic photosynthesis, which resulted in the presence of oxygen gas ... More


Animal phylogenetics

Alessandro Minelli

in Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780198566205
eISBN:
9780191713866
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566205.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The single main root of phylogenetics is Hennig's reformulation of the comparative method, but the empirical basis has increased enormously in recent years with the availability of an exponentially ... More


Functional Divergence after Gene Duplication: Statistical Modeling

Xun Gu

in Statistical Theory and Methods for Evolutionary Genomics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199213269
eISBN:
9780191594762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213269.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

Many organisms have undergone genome-wide or local chromosome duplication events during their evolution. As a result, many genes are represented as several paralogs in the genome with related but ... More


Functional Divergence after Gene Duplication: Applications and Others

Xun Gu

in Statistical Theory and Methods for Evolutionary Genomics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199213269
eISBN:
9780191594762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213269.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

As most amino acid substitutions are not related to the functional divergence but only represent the neutral evolution, it becomes crucial how to distinguish statistically between these two ... More


Flowers

Günter P. Wagner

in Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156460
eISBN:
9781400851461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156460.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the developmental evolution of flowers and flower organ identity. It reviews some of the most important insights that have been gained from research on the developmental ... More


Gene duplication

Michael L. Arnold

in Evolution through Genetic Exchange

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199229031
eISBN:
9780191728266
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199229031.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers instances where the genetic exchange, in this case resulting in genomic duplications, has derived from sexual reproduction as well as other forms of recombination. It looks at ... More


Evolution of specificity and diversity

Denis C. Shields, Catriona R. Johnston, Iain M. Wallace, and Richard J. Edwards

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The divergence of proteins following gene duplication has long been recognized as an important process in the evolution of both new and specific protein functions. For functional divergence to occur, ... More


Evolution of the vertebrate globin gene family

Jay F. Storz

in Hemoglobin: Insights into protein structure, function, and evolution

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780198810681
eISBN:
9780191847929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810681.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 5 provides an overview of the evolutionary history of the globin gene superfamily and places the evolution of vertebrate-specific globins in phylogenetic context. The duplication and ... More


Gene duplications and innovation

Andreas Wagner

in The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations: A Theory of Transformative Change in Living Systems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199692590
eISBN:
9780191774829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692590.003.0166
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Gene duplications have long been thought to facilitate evolutionary innovation. This chapter highlights three dramatic classes of innovations associated with gene duplications. It then creates a ... More


Evolutionary interactions between sex chromosomes and autosomes

Manyuan Long, Maria D. Vibranovski, and Yong E. Zhang

in Rapidly Evolving Genes and Genetic Systems

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199642274
eISBN:
9780191774751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642274.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Investigations into the evolution of sex chromosomes and sex-determination have attracted wide attention, with voluminous literature reporting interesting findings in the evolution of individual X ... More


Mutation, Gene Conversion, and Migration

Daniel L. Hartl

in A Primer of Population Genetics and Genomics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780198862291
eISBN:
9780191895074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198862291.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Chapter 4 focuses on forward and reverse mutation, gene duplication and functional divergence, gene conversion, and equilibrium heterozygosity. It includes an introduction to the coalescent as well ... More


Gene duplication and hemoglobin isoform differentiation

Jay F. Storz

in Hemoglobin: Insights into protein structure, function, and evolution

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780198810681
eISBN:
9780191847929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810681.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 6 explores the physiological significance of gene duplication and hemoglobin isoform differentiation. Repeated rounds of gene duplication and divergence during the evolution of jawed ... More


Fast rates of evolution in bacteria due to horizontal gene transfer

Weilong Hao

in Rapidly Evolving Genes and Genetic Systems

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199642274
eISBN:
9780191774751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642274.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Horizontal gene transfer is recognized as a major force in shaping bacterial gene content and has gained incredible attention over the last decade, in part due to the fast growing number of sequenced ... More


Multiple Forms of Aromatase in Suiformes: Tissue Distribution, Regulation, and Functional Significance

Alan Conley, Veronica N. Orr, Brian C. Trainor, Trish Berger, and Austin Hughes

in Brain Aromatase, Estrogens, and Behavior

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199841196
eISBN:
9780199979837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199841196.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

Pigs have three CYP19 genes encoding functional paralogues of aromatase cytochrome P450 expressed tissue specifically in the gonads/hypothalamus, placenta, and preimplantation blastocyst. Gene ... More


Linking sequence to function in drug design with ancestral sequence reconstruction

Janos T. Kodra, Marie Skovgaard, Dennis Madsen, and David A. Liberles

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Many bioactive peptides and proteins of pharmaceutical interest are found in animal venoms. Nature often reuses scaffolds within protein frameworks to develop new properties. The binding core of the ... More


Genomes and the origin of genetic variation

Glenn-Peter Sætre and Mark Ravinet

in Evolutionary Genetics: Concepts, Analysis, and Practice

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198830917
eISBN:
9780191868993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830917.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

Error and chance events, random mutations, are necessary prerequisites for evolution to happen. In a perfect world with no mutations there would be no evolution because no genetic variation would be ... More


Duplication

Mary Jane West-Eberhard

in Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195122343
eISBN:
9780197561300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195122343.003.0016
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

Duplication occurs at all levels of phenotypic organization. It was among the first developmental phenomena to attract the attention of biologists ... More


Summary and outlook

Andreas Wagner

in The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations: A Theory of Transformative Change in Living Systems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199692590
eISBN:
9780191774829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692590.003.0273
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter summarizes key points and provides an outlook to future challenges. It discusses how evolutionary innovations involve changes in the following three classes of biological systems: ... More


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