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## The empirical import of gauge symmetry

*Richard Healey*

### in Gauging What's Real: The Conceptual Foundations of Gauge Theories

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- January 2008
- ISBN:
- 9780199287963
- eISBN:
- 9780191713453
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287963.003.0006
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that gauge symmetry is a purely formal feature of our theoretical representations with no empirical consequences. It distinguishes theoretical symmetries of a theory from ... More

## Breaking Symmetries

*Gian Francesco Giudice*

### in A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780199581917
- eISBN:
- 9780191723001
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581917.003.0008
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Symmetries play a fundamental role in modern physics. This chapter introduces this concept by discussing the meaning of symmetries in mathematics and in physics, explaining the significance of Lie ... More

## Symmetries IV: Local symmetries in field theory

*Anthony Duncan*

### in The Conceptual Framework of Quantum Field Theory

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- January 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780199573264
- eISBN:
- 9780191743313
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573264.003.0015
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter examines the additional rich structure introduced when a local quantum field theory displays a local gauge symmetry. It shows how such symmetries require a generalization of the ... More

## Quantum Gauge Theories

*Xiao-Gang Wen*

### in Quantum Field Theory of Many-Body Systems: From the Origin of Sound to an Origin of Light and Electrons

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780199227259
- eISBN:
- 9780191713019
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227259.003.06
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The last few chapters have discussed many-boson theory and many-fermion theory because nature has many-boson systems and many-fermion systems. Do many-boson/many-fermion theories describe all the ... More

## Loop representations

*Richard Healey*

### in Gauging What's Real: The Conceptual Foundations of Gauge Theories

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- January 2008
- ISBN:
- 9780199287963
- eISBN:
- 9780191713453
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287963.003.0007
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter explains the idea of a loop representation of a quantum field theory. Loop representations are important because they offer the prospect of a ‘gauge-free’ formulation of a gauge theory. ... More

## Symmetry Perforce

*Michael Munowitz*

### in Knowing: The Nature of Physical Law

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780195167375
- eISBN:
- 9780199787104
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195167375.003.0009
- Subject:
- Physics, History of Physics

In symmetry there is force. First, the indistinguishability of quantum mechanical particles divides the world into bosons and fermions, force and matter. Interchange symmetry imposes an exclusionary ... More

## Critical Properties Of Gauge Theories

*JEAN ZINN-JUSTIN*

### in Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena

- Published in print:
- 2002
- Published Online:
- January 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198509233
- eISBN:
- 9780191708732
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509233.003.0034
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter considers lattice models with gauge symmetry and discusses their properties from the point of view of phase transitions and spectrum structure. It focuses on pure lattice gauge theories ... More

## Gauge Theory of Spin Glasses

*Hidetoshi Nishimori*

### in Statistical Physics of Spin Glasses and Information Processing: An Introduction

- Published in print:
- 2001
- Published Online:
- January 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198509417
- eISBN:
- 9780191709081
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509417.003.0004
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Studying how reliable the predictions of the mean-field theory are in realistic finite-dimensional systems presents an important problem. It is, in general, very difficult to investigate two- and ... More

## Path integral and anomaly

*Reinhold A. Bertlmann*

### in Anomalies in Quantum Field Theory

- Published in print:
- 2000
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198507628
- eISBN:
- 9780191706400
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507628.003.0005
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Chapter 4 presented a thorough investigation of the anomaly within perturbation theory. This chapter presents the nonperturbative view. Section 5.1 performs a chiral transformation of the path ... More

## BEC: Its definition, origin, occurrence, and consequences

*A.J. Leggett*

### in Quantum Liquids: Bose condensation and Cooper pairing in condensed-matter systems

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- January 2008
- ISBN:
- 9780198526438
- eISBN:
- 9780191711954
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526438.003.0002
- Subject:
- Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter contains a general discussion of the phenomenon of BEC, under conditions much broader than those realized in the equilibrium noninteracting system introduced in Chapter 1. A definition ... More

## Symmetries

*John Iliopoulos*

### in The Origin of Mass: Elementary Particles and Fundamental Symmetries

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- December 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198805175
- eISBN:
- 9780191843259
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198805175.003.0003
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

The concept of symmetry plays a central role in our understanding of the fundamental laws of Nature. Through a deep mathematical theorem due to A.E. Noether, all conservation laws of classical ... More

## Quantum Chromodynamics

*Michael E. Peskin*

### in Concepts of Elementary Particle Physics

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- November 2019
- ISBN:
- 9780198812180
- eISBN:
- 9780191850301
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198812180.003.0011
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter introduces non-Abelian gauge symmetry and the associated field equations for spin-1 particles. It proposes the gauge theory Quantum Chromodynamics as the theory of the strong ... More

## Relativistic quantum mechanics

*G. Barr, R. Devenish, R. Walczak, and T. Weidberg*

### in Particle Physics in the LHC Era

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- March 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780198748557
- eISBN:
- 9780191811203
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748557.003.0006
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter starts with a brief summary of special relativity, describing how 4-vectors and the Lorentz transformation can be represented by complex matrices. Spinors are introduced as basic ... More

## Properties of Non-Instant and Nonlocal Corrections

*Klaus Morawetz*

### in Interacting Systems far from Equilibrium: Quantum Kinetic Theory

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- February 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780198797241
- eISBN:
- 9780191838743
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198797241.003.0014
- Subject:
- Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The derived nonlocal and non-instant shifts are discussed with respect to various symmetries and gauges. The classical counterparts are derived and found in agreement with the expected ... More

## Large-momentum behaviour in quantum field theory (QFT)

*Jean Zinn-Justin*

### in Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena: Fifth Edition

- Published in print:
- 2021
- Published Online:
- June 2021
- ISBN:
- 9780198834625
- eISBN:
- 9780191872723
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198834625.003.0024
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Renormalization group (RG) equations are used to characterize the large momentum behaviour of renormalized quantum field theories (QFT), assuming implicitly that such a universal large momentum ... More

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