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Metabolism and gas exchange

Steven L. Chown and Sue W. Nicolson

in Insect Physiological Ecology: Mechanisms and Patterns

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198515494
eISBN:
9780191705649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515494.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Energy is a currency common to all animals, and the suite of responses shown by insects to the environments they inhabit is dependent on the metabolism of substrates. This chapter deals largely with ... More


Introduction

Stanley S. Hillman, Philip C. Withers, Robert C. Drewes, and Stanley D. Hillyard

in Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Amphibians

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198570325
eISBN:
9780191728259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570325.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter introduces the morphological characters that define the Class Amphibia and its three orders: Gymnophiona (caecilians), Caudata (salamanders), and Anura (frogs and toads). It defines the ... More


Gas exchange

Jill Lancaster and Barbara J. Downes

in Aquatic Entomology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199573219
eISBN:
9780191774850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199573219.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter explains the diverse ways insects manage to respire underwater. First, it reviews the basic principles of diffusion and the physical properties of gases, because this is instrumental to ... More


Anatomy and physiology

Martin F. Muers

in Supportive Care in Respiratory Disease

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199591763
eISBN:
9780191739149
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199591763.003.0002
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making

This chapter is intended to be an aide-memoire for the reader who wishes to be reminded of the normal state of the respiratory system before considering a particular symptom or condition. ... More


Breathlessness in heart failure

David P. Dutka and Miriam J. Johnson

in Dyspnoea in Advanced Disease: A guide to clinical management

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780198530039
eISBN:
9780191730450
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530039.003.0003
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

Breathlessness is a basic symptom of heart failure. In spite of the importance accorded to the disease in giving insight to the severity of dyspnoea, heart failure has only been recently spoken of as ... More


Dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder

Michelle M. Peters and Denis E. Oʼdonnell

in Dyspnoea in Advanced Disease: A guide to clinical management

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780198530039
eISBN:
9780191730450
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530039.003.0004
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

Respiratory discomfort or dyspnoea is the primary symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and is a prime contributor to the poor quality of life of patients diagnosed with this ... More


A primer on respiratory physiology

Steven F. Perry, Markus Lambertz, and Anke Schmitz

in Respiratory Biology of Animals: evolutionary and functional morphology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199238460
eISBN:
9780191864056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199238460.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Developmental Biology

According to the principle ‘before you can do what you want to do, you always have to do something else’, this chapter first delves into the basics of respiratory physiology. It begins with ... More


Respiratory faculties of aquatic invertebrates

Steven F. Perry, Markus Lambertz, and Anke Schmitz

in Respiratory Biology of Animals: evolutionary and functional morphology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199238460
eISBN:
9780191864056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199238460.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Developmental Biology

This chapter introduces the ‘who has what’ in terms of respiratory organs for major water-breathing invertebrate groups. It begins with sponges and cnidarians—groups that have no recognizable ... More


General Physiological Principles

Philip C. Withers, Christine E. Cooper, Shane K. Maloney, Francisco Bozinovic, and Ariovaldo P. Cruz-Neto

in Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Mammals

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780199642717
eISBN:
9780191830334
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642717.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Ecology

Chapter 2 provides a general physiological background that will be further developed in subsequent chapters for mammals in particular. It first examines the importance of scaling effects of body mass ... More


Breathing Breathing

Malcolm Burrows

in The Neurobiology of an Insect Brain

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523444
eISBN:
9780191724411
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523444.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

The neural control of breathing or ventilatory movements has attracted much attention over the years because of the persistence and reliability of the underlying motor rhythm. The persistence derives ... More


Environmental Biology

Park S. Nobel and Edward G. Bobich

in Cacti: Biology and Uses

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520231573
eISBN:
9780520927889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520231573.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter discusses gas exchange and other environmental responses of cacti. It focuses on net CO2 uptake and examines the influence of three key environmental factors—temperature, soil moisture, ... More


Respiratory faculties of amphibious and terrestrial invertebrates

Steven F. Perry, Markus Lambertz, and Anke Schmitz

in Respiratory Biology of Animals: evolutionary and functional morphology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199238460
eISBN:
9780191864056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199238460.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Developmental Biology

This chapter focuses on the respiratory faculties of invertebrate air breathers. Although the partial pressure of oxygen in water is the same as in the surrounding atmosphere, the oxygen content per ... More


Organic Matter and Nutrients in the Mainstem Amazon River

Alan H. Devol and John I. Hedges

in The Biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195114317
eISBN:
9780197561140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195114317.003.0018
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

The Amazon, like smaller rivers, is the daughter of its drainage basin. Local climate and interactions over time with the template of topography, geology, and vegetation determine the size and flow ... More


Seagrasses and Their Environment

Peter J. Hogarth

in The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses, Third Edition

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716549
eISBN:
9780191802676
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716549.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Seagrasses grow by extending horizontal rhizomes which periodically grow vertical leaves and absorptive roots. Seagrass roots consolidate and stabilize the sediment. Seagrasses are limited to the ... More


A very brief history of respiratory biology

Steven F. Perry, Markus Lambertz, and Anke Schmitz

in Respiratory Biology of Animals: evolutionary and functional morphology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199238460
eISBN:
9780191864056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199238460.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Developmental Biology

A better understanding of what life is and how living organisms function has always been of crucial importance to humans, but ‘biology’ as a scientific discipline is quite young, the term being ... More


Gene duplication and hemoglobin isoform differentiation

Jay F. Storz

in Hemoglobin: Insights into protein structure, function, and evolution

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780198810681
eISBN:
9780191847929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810681.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 6 explores the physiological significance of gene duplication and hemoglobin isoform differentiation. Repeated rounds of gene duplication and divergence during the evolution of jawed ... More


The Vine Root Habitat

Robert E. White

in Soils for Fine Wines

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195141023
eISBN:
9780197561768
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195141023.003.0005
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

In the deep gravelly soils of the Bordeaux region, Seguin (1972) found vine roots at a depth of 6 m. Woody “framework roots” tend to be at least 30–35 cm be­low the ... More


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