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Parties at the European Level

Simon Hix

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Since the 1970s, academic interest in ‘parties at the European level’ has gone full circle. The story began in the 1970s, in the wake of the decision to hold direct elections to the European ... More


Still Functional After All These Years: Parties in the United States, 1960–2000

John C. Green

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The American party system has experienced considerable change since 1960, and the meaning of this change is the subject of much debate, at the core of which is a basic question: how functional is the ... More


Canada's Nineteenth‐Century Cadre Parties at the Millennium

R. Kenneth Carty

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The electoral explosion that overthrew the established patterns of Canada's national party system in 1993 marked the end of yet another cycle in Canadian party system development, for there had been ... More


Political Parties in Australia: Party Stability in a Utilitarian Society

Ian McAllister

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Placed in a comparative perspective, the hallmark of Australian politics is the dominance of party: the vast majority of voters identify with and vote for one of the major political parties, and ... More


Parties and Society in New Zealand

Jack Vowles

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0014
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The first introductory section discusses the evolution of the current party system in New Zealand, from a system dominated by the two parties around which it had aligned in the 1930s, to the ... More


Conclusion: Political Parties and Democratic Control in Advanced Industrial Societies

Paul Webb

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0015
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Starts by presenting a summary of the findings of the national case studies covered in the study of political parties and democratic control in advanced democratic societies. The summary excludes the ... More


Introduction: Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Paul Webb

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This introductory chapter describes the aim of the book and the scope and framework of the analysis it presents. It distinguishes three broad types of research inquiry into the performance and ... More


Political Parties in Britain: Secular Decline or Adaptive Resilience?

Paul Webb

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

For thirty years following the end of the Second World War, it was orthodox to regard Britain as having one of the most stable and party‐oriented political systems in the Western world—parties ... More


Italian Parties: Change and Functionality

Luciano Bardi

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

For over forty years, Italy was seen as a ‘party government’ system, with a party system that was extremely fragmented, consisting of up to 10 national parties, at least seven of which could at any ... More


Party Decline in the Parties State? The Changing Environment of German Politics

Susan E. Scarrow

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The 1949 (West) German Basic Law established a system of party‐based democracy that has now endured for more than half a century, yet today's political system is not identical to that of earlier ... More


France: Never a Golden Age

Andrew Knapp

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

General Charles de Gaulle, founder of the Fifth French Republic in 1958, was a bitter opponent of the unchecked power of political parties, for which he blamed the failure of earlier Republics, but ... More


The Colour Purple: The End of Predictable Politics in the Low Countries

Kris Deschouwer

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Belgium and the Netherlands are often taken and presented together as the ‘Low Countries’, and there are good reasons for treating the two countries as part of a single category, since both are ... More


The Scandinavian Party Model at the Crossroads

Jan Sundberg

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Scandinavian party systems have often been seen as ‘ultra stable’, a view that was certainly justified between 1945 and the early 1970; however, the general election of 1973 in Denmark signalled a ... More


Party Politics in Ireland: Regularizing a Volatile System

R. J. Murphy and David M. Farrell

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Until as recently as the mid‐1970s, Irish party politics had an unchanging nature and was characterized as a two‐and‐a‐half party system (Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael, and the smaller Labour Party) ... More


Spain: Building a Parties State in a New Democracy

Ian Holliday

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Spain has made a number of experiments with democracy, but only since the mid‐1970s has this been successful. At that time, strenuous efforts were made to ensure that political parties would come ... More


Ancestral sequence reconstruction as a tool to understand natural history and guide synthetic biology: realizing and extending the vision of Zuckerkandl and Pauling

Eric A. Gaucher

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The perspective on natural history and medicine by Emile Zuckerkandl combined with the chemical expertise of Linus Pauling generated many novel ideas concerning molecular evolution. These included ... More


Who's Afraid of Degrees of Truth?

Nicholas J. J. Smith

in Vagueness and Degrees of Truth

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199233007
eISBN:
9780191716430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233007.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter considers objections to the fuzzy view of vagueness in particular, and to degree-theoretic treatments of vagueness in general. These objections are that the very idea of truth coming in ... More


Functional Beauty in the Aesthetic Tradition

Glenn Parsons and Allen Carlson

in Functional Beauty

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199205240
eISBN:
9780191709296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199205240.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics

This chapter discusses a tradition, now obscured, that of associated aesthetic pleasure with functionality and related concepts, such as utility. The aim in describing this tradition and some aspects ... More


Indeterminacy and the Concept of Function

Glenn Parsons and Allen Carlson

in Functional Beauty

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199205240
eISBN:
9780191709296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199205240.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics

This chapter addresses the problem of indeterminacy, tracing the problem of the indeterminacy of function to an intuitive and widely held view concerning the functions of artefacts: that they are ... More


Restoring biodiversity and ecosystem function: will an integrated approach improve results?

Justin Wright, Amy Symstad, James M. Bullock, Katharina Engelhardt, Louise Jackson, and Emily Bernhardt

in Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing: An Ecological and Economic Perspective

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199547951
eISBN:
9780191720345
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547951.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Ecological restorations often focus on restoring communities while ignoring ecosystem functioning, or on ecosystem functioning without regard to communities. This chapter argues that the ... More


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