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The Urban Environment

Caroline M. Barron

in London in the Later Middle Ages: Government and People 1200-1500

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199257775
eISBN:
9780191717758
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199257775.003.10
Subject:
History, British and Irish Medieval History

This chapter examines the effectiveness of civic attempts to regulate and improve the urban environment against a background of population change and epidemic plague. The maintenance of communal ... More


Rights over Flowing Water

Anthony Scott and Georgina Coustalin

in The Evolution of Resource Property Rights

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198286035
eISBN:
9780191718410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198286035.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter follows the evolution of rights to use or enjoy streams and lakes. It distinguishes legally ‘land-based’ systems from those that are ‘use-based’. Tracing the alternation or cycling of ... More


Hyper-regulators: life in fresh water Hyper-regulators: life in fresh water

Timothy J. Bradley

in Animal Osmoregulation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198569961
eISBN:
9780191728273
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569961.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Freshwater habitats are filled with abundant animal life from numerous phyla. Because the osmotic concentration of fresh water is extremely low compared to both extracellular and intracellular ... More


Physiological Adaptations to Extreme Environments

Stanley S. Hillman, Philip C. Withers, Robert C. Drewes, and Stanley D. Hillyard

in Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Amphibians

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198570325
eISBN:
9780191728259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570325.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter explores what is known about how amphibians deal with extreme environmental situations, beginning with aquatic environments, both fresh water and marine. It then describes life in ... More


“The Position of Our City has Materially Changed”: Public Costs and Municipal Governance During the Civil War

Earl F. Mulderink III

in New Bedford's Civil War

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780823243341
eISBN:
9780823243389
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823243341.003.0009
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter details efforts by New Bedford's public officials to confront the challenges presented by the Civil War on fiscal management and municipal governance. It examines community debates over ... More


Economization of the Law Applicable to Fresh Water

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes

in Fresh Water in International Law

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198863427
eISBN:
9780191895845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863427.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

Economic activities have long been associated with fresh water and legal rules have been developed to govern the use and exploitation of water as a potential source of profit in this context. The ... More


Humanization of the Law Applicable to Fresh Water

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes

in Fresh Water in International Law

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198863427
eISBN:
9780191895845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863427.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

Human needs have permeated the law applicable to fresh water through a variety of avenues. This development has added new contours to existing rules and principles. It has also led to the emergence ... More


Environmentalization of the Law Applicable to Fresh Water

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes

in Fresh Water in International Law

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198863427
eISBN:
9780191895845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863427.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This chapter examines how international environmental law contributes to the protection and effective management of fresh water. There has been, over time, a growing awareness of the linkages between ... More


Walking Sideways: The Remarkable World of Crabs

Judith S. Weis

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450501
eISBN:
9780801466045
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450501.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

The world’s nearly 7,000 species of crabs are immediately recognizable by their claws, sideways movement, stalked eyes, and thick outer shells. These common crustaceans are found internationally, ... More


Regulation of Fresh Water Uses: Evolution, Scope, and Developments

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes

in Fresh Water in International Law: Second Edition

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198863427
eISBN:
9780191895845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863427.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

Chapter 2 traces the evolution of fresh water regulation. It identifies the various uses of fresh water that have been subject to legal rules, including boundary delimitation along international ... More


Institutionalization Trends in Fresh Water Governance

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes

in Fresh Water in International Law

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198863427
eISBN:
9780191895845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863427.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

Institutions of a varied nature and with diverse mandates are involved with the protection and management of fresh water. Indeed, there has been an ever-increasing institutionalization trend in fresh ... More


Dispute Settlement and Fresh Water: Trends, Means, and Practice

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes

in Fresh Water in International Law

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198863427
eISBN:
9780191895845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863427.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

The resolution of disputes related to issues of fresh water scarcity, degradation, and access to water are evident in practice. There is a staggering diversity of institutions with judicial or ... More


Introduction: Fresh Water and Its Features

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes

in Fresh Water in International Law

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198863427
eISBN:
9780191895845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863427.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This introductory chapter offers a preview of the challenges and opportunities attached to water. It presents the features of water as a finite resource and the challenges that accompany its ... More


Fresh Water in International Law

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198863427
eISBN:
9780191895845
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863427.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

This book, now in its second edition, addresses the diverse ways in which international law governs the uses, management, and protection of fresh water. The regulation of fresh water has primarily ... More


Closed-Cycle OTEC Systems

William H. Avery and Chih Wu

in Renewable Energy from the Ocean: A Guide to OTEC

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195071993
eISBN:
9780197560242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195071993.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

The Rankine closed cycle is a process in which beat is used to evaporate a fluid at constant pressure in a “boiler” or evaporator, from which the vapor enters a piston ... More


River Values and Threats

Angela H. Arthington

in Environmental Flows: Saving Rivers in the Third Millennium

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780520273696
eISBN:
9780520953451
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520273696.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Escalating human demands for fresh water are jeopardising the intrinsic biodiversity values, ecological health, and vital ecosystem services of the rivers, wetlands, and estuaries upon which millions ... More


Looking Ahead: Trends and Prospects

Laurence Boisson de Chazournes

in Fresh Water in International Law

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780198863427
eISBN:
9780191895845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198863427.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Public International Law

The body of principles and rules of international law applicable to fresh water has developed in many different directions. Regulation, economization, environmentalization, humanization, and ... More


OTEC System Concepts

William H. Avery and Chih Wu

in Renewable Energy from the Ocean: A Guide to OTEC

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195071993
eISBN:
9780197560242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195071993.003.0010
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

Systems engineering is a top-down approach to program management and systems procurement. It optimizes the development process by ensuring that the operational, ... More


Overheated: The Human Cost of Climate Change

Andrew T. Guzman

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
February 2015
ISBN:
9780199933877
eISBN:
9780190252694
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199933877.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

Deniers of climate change sometimes quip that claims about global warming are more about political science than climate science. They are wrong on the science, but may be right with respect to its ... More


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