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Standard Chinese

San Duanmu

in Syllable Structure: The Limits of Variation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199267590
eISBN:
9780191708367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267590.003.0005
Subject:
Linguistics, Phonetics / Phonology, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter offers an analysis of distribution patterns of sounds and syllables in Standard Chinese, including sound frequencies and onset, rhyme, syllable, and tonal frequencies. It also discusses ... More


Shanghai Chinese

San Duanmu

in Syllable Structure: The Limits of Variation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199267590
eISBN:
9780191708367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267590.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Phonetics / Phonology, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter offers an analysis of distribution patterns of sounds and syllables in Shanghai Chinese. Of interest is the fact that Shanghai has no diphthongs or contrastive codas. In addition, the ... More


Introduction

Michael Doebeli

in Adaptive Diversification (MPB-48)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691128931
eISBN:
9781400838936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691128931.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This introductory chapter provides an overview of frequency-dependent selection—the phenomenon that the evolving population is part of the changing environment determining the evolutionary ... More


Adaptive Diversification (MPB-48)

Michael Doebeli

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691128931
eISBN:
9781400838936
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691128931.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Understanding the mechanisms driving biological diversity remains a central problem in ecology and evolutionary biology. Traditional explanations assume that differences in selection pressures lead ... More


 What Is Evolutionary Biology and Where Is It Coming From?

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter describes the Darwin-Wallace theory of evolution by natural selection. In particular, it explains the notion of fitness, which underlies the concepts of descent with modification and the ... More


A CLASSIFICATION OF LINEAR IBVPs

Sylvie Benzoni-Gavage and Denis Serre

in Multi-dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equations: First-order systems and applications

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211234
eISBN:
9780191705700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211234.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

Besides strongly well-posed (with a uniform K.-L. condition) and strongly ill-posed (where K.-L. fails) IBVPs, there are interesting problems that are only C∞ -well posed, but ... More


Concepts of Epidemiology: Integrating the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

Raj Bhopal

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199543144
eISBN:
9780191723995
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543144.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the science that underpins health and health care, and is concerned with the pattern, frequency, and causes of disease. This book describes and illustrates epidemiology and its ... More


Some General Considerations

Norma van Surdam Graham

in Visual Pattern Analyzers

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195051544
eISBN:
9780199872183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195051544.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The seventeen dimensions of pattern vision considered in this book are mutually independent in the following sense: specifying the stimulus value on any one dimension does not give the value on any ... More


Why Localized Spatial Frequency Filtering?

Russell L. De Valois and Karen K. De Valois

in Spatial Vision

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195066579
eISBN:
9780199872220
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195066579.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter argues that visual information is encoded in terms of spatial frequency because the visual world is periodic and can thus be more efficiently encoded in the spatial frequency domain than ... More


The Mental Corpus: How language is represented in the mind

John R. Taylor

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199290802
eISBN:
9780191741388
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199290802.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

This book argues that knowledge of a language can be thought of as a mental corpus, that is, as a repository of memories of previous linguistic encounters with the language. Features of incoming ... More


Evolutionary Ecology of Grass-Endophyte Interactions

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley H. Faeth

in Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Because systemic endophytes predominantly inhabit caespitose perennial grasses and seedling recruitment may be relatively scarce, understanding how infection alters the population dynamics and ... More


Patterns of dispersal from entire plants

Roger Cousens, Calvin Dytham, and Richard Law

in Dispersal in Plants: A Population Perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199299126
eISBN:
9780191715006
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299126.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter discusses approaches that have been used to understand how particular shapes and scales of propagule distributions arise around a parent plant. It begins by contrasting two different ... More


Social selection

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Selection is often generated by interaction with other organisms: neighbours, partners, or antagonists. The force and direction of selection in these social contexts is very generally influenced by ... More


Motoneurones: electrophysiology

Daniel Kernell

in The Motoneurone and its Muscle Fibres

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526551
eISBN:
9780191723896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526551.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

In the soma-dendrite region of a motoneurone, a spike is succeeded by a long-lasting afterhyperpolarization (AHP), which is important for the characteristics of maintained repetitive spike ... More


Short-term plasticity: fatigue and potentiation

Daniel Kernell

in The Motoneurone and its Muscle Fibres

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526551
eISBN:
9780191723896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526551.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The functional properties of neurones, synapses, and muscles often change as a result of preceding use. In the short term (minutes to hours), such changes are typically rather rapidly reversible and ... More


PROBABILITY

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Probability functions over domains of variables are introduced, as are the various interpretations of probability, including the frequency, propensity, chance, and Bayesian interpretations. The ... More


MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF ONE-FLUID PROBLEMS

Jean-Frédéric Gerbeau, Claude Le Bris, and Tony Lelièvre

in Mathematical Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamics of Liquid Metals

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566656
eISBN:
9780191718014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566656.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, Mathematical Physics

This chapter focuses on the modelling of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics problems. The crucial point under consideration is the coupling between hydrodynamics phenomena and electromagnetic phenomena. ... More


Visual Pattern Analyzers

Norma Van Surdam Graham

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195051544
eISBN:
9780199872183
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195051544.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

From the light that falls on the retina, the visual system must extract meaningful information about what is where in our environment. At an early stage in this process, it analyzes the incoming ... More


STATISTICAL INDUCTION—WHEN AND HOW?

Shoutir Kishore Chatterjee

in Statistical Thought: A Perspective and History

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525318
eISBN:
9780191711657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525318.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

In statistical induction, the evidence is represented by observations on characters with definite domains but uncertain potential values. In the objective approach, the observational procedure is ... More


INTERPRETATION OF PROBABILITY: VARIOUS NUANCES

Shoutir Kishore Chatterjee

in Statistical Thought: A Perspective and History

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525318
eISBN:
9780191711657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525318.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Apart from formal operations, the interpretation of probability must be considered to use probability for statistical induction. The objective interpretation relates probability to long-term relative ... More


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