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Writing Reconstruction: Race, Gender, and Citizenship in the Postwar South

Sharon D. Kennedy-Nolle

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469621074
eISBN:
9781469621098
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469621074.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

After the Civil War, the South was divided into five military districts occupied by Union forces. Out of these regions, a remarkable group of writers emerged. Experiencing the long-lasting ... More


Tea and Memory

Margot Minardi

in Making Slavery History: Abolitionism and the Politics of Memory in Massachusetts

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195379372
eISBN:
9780199869152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195379372.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

This chapter centers on the private spaces of sociability and everyday life where memories were made in the context of personal relationships. Drawing on texts commemorating individual people of ... More


Junction

Edward L. Ayers

in Southern Crossing: A History of the American South, 1877-1906

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195086898
eISBN:
9780199854226
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195086898.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

The chapter discusses the state of the South in the 1880s just after the depression and the end of the Reconstruction era. Publications talk about a “New South”. The most prevalent occupation was ... More


Too Great a Burden to Bear: The Struggle and Failure of the Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Christopher B. Bean

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780823268757
eISBN:
9780823271771
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823268757.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

In its brief seven-year existence, the Freedmen’s Bureau became the epicenter of the debate about Reconstruction. Cognizant of its responsibilities, partisans fiercely debated its necessity. ... More


Stowe's Truths: Privacy, Privation, and The Mob

Katherine Adams

in Owning Up: Privacy, Property, and Belonging in U.S. Women's Life Writing, 1840-1890

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195336801
eISBN:
9780199868360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195336801.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, American, 19th Century Literature

This chapter examines mid-19th-century U.S. privacy discourse in its dystopian aspect, where privacy is a force that threatens to invade the ... More


Ku-Klux: The Birth of the Klan during Reconstruction

Elaine Frantz Parsons

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469625423
eISBN:
9781469625447
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469625423.001.0001
Subject:
History, African-American History

The reconstruction-era Ku-Klux Klan emerged as a solution to the problem of southern white defeat and black empowerment. Through Klan terror, white southern men tried both to reestablish their local ... More


“that the freedwomen … may rise to the dignity and glory of true womanhood”: The Men, Purpose, and Gendered Freedom of the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0002
Subject:
History, Social History

The realization of policy of the Freedmen's Bureau rested foremost on its officials at the local level. Using the gospel of free labor as the platform, bureau officials and ... More


“strict justice for every man, woman, and child”: Gender, Justice, and the Freedmen's Bureau

Mary Farmer-Kaiser

in Freedwomen and the Freedmen's Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2011
ISBN:
9780823232116
eISBN:
9780823234943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fso/9780823232116.003.0006
Subject:
History, Social History

Operating at best with a belief that freedmen and women required “a guardian rather than a jailor or hangman”, Freedmen's Bureau officials worked not only to defend the rights ... More


The Roots of the Ku-Klux Klan in Pulaski, Tennessee

Elaine Frantz Parsons

in Ku-Klux: The Birth of the Klan during Reconstruction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469625423
eISBN:
9781469625447
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469625423.003.0001
Subject:
History, African-American History

The Klan was founded not by southern plantation owners but by politically moderate, fairly cosmopolitan, border-state professionals in Pulaski, Tennessee. These young white men, facing the political, ... More


The Ku-Klux in the National Press

Elaine Frantz Parsons

in Ku-Klux: The Birth of the Klan during Reconstruction

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469625423
eISBN:
9781469625447
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469625423.003.0004
Subject:
History, African-American History

Northern newspapers used the Klan to talk about the nature of citizenship, the expansion of the state, and their anxieties that the individual was subject to manipulation by an increasingly robust ... More


Constance Fenimore Woolson and the Tourist Outback of Florida

Sharon D. Kennedy-Nolle

in Writing Reconstruction: Race, Gender, and Citizenship in the Postwar South

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469621074
eISBN:
9781469621098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469621074.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This chapter examines the work of Constance Fenimore Woolson, who imagined freedpeople, particularly freedwomen, as successful citizens in an ethnically diverse America. Her writings contributed to ... More


Sewing on the Badges of Servitude: Albion Tourgée v. North Carolina

Sharon D. Kennedy-Nolle

in Writing Reconstruction: Race, Gender, and Citizenship in the Postwar South

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469621074
eISBN:
9781469621098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469621074.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This chapter analyzes the novels of Albion Winegar Tourgée, who unlike Constance Woolson, was a leading actor in the Reconstruction’s violent drama as it played out. Being a combat veteran, a ... More


The Strange Career of Reconstruction Writing

Sharon D. Kennedy-Nolle

in Writing Reconstruction: Race, Gender, and Citizenship in the Postwar South

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469621074
eISBN:
9781469621098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469621074.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This concluding chapter analyzes the contradictory nature of Reconstruction literature by examining the speeches of Henry Grady, who introduced the notion of a “New South,” a white-supremacist ... More


Owning Up to Citizenship

Sharon D. Kennedy-Nolle

in Writing Reconstruction: Race, Gender, and Citizenship in the Postwar South

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469621074
eISBN:
9781469621098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469621074.003.0007
Subject:
Literature, African-American Literature

This introductory chapter briefly describes how Reconstruction writers explored the new constitutional guarantee of citizenship for the freedpeople living in the Southern United States. It analyzes ... More


Dying to Be Free: The Unexpected Medical Crises of War and Emancipation

Jim Downs

in Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199758722
eISBN:
9780190254438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199758722.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter focuses on the process of emancipation in the United States, with particular emphasis on factors that led to high mortality rates and epidemic outbreaks. These factors include ... More


The Anatomy of Emancipation: The Creation of a Healthy Labor Force

Jim Downs

in Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199758722
eISBN:
9780190254438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199758722.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter examines why disease broke out among emancipated slaves after the Civil War, with particular reference to the federal government’s inability to develop a free labor economy in the ... More


Freedmen’s Hospitals: The Medical Division of the Freedmen’s Bureau

Jim Downs

in Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199758722
eISBN:
9780190254438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199758722.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter focuses on the bureaucracy and administrative hierarchy of the Medical Division of the Freedmen’s Bureau as well as Freedmen’s Hospitals, which were modeled on nineteenth-century asylums ... More


Reconstructing an Epidemic: Smallpox among Former Slaves, 1862–1868

Jim Downs

in Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199758722
eISBN:
9780190254438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199758722.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter focuses on the smallpox epidemic, the most devastating medical crisis that erupted throughout the South after the Civil War, and how it claimed the lives of thousands of freed slaves ... More


The Healing Power of Labor: Dependent, Disabled, Orphaned, Elderly, and Female Freed Slaves in the Postwar South

Jim Downs

in Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199758722
eISBN:
9780190254438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199758722.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter focuses on the population of former slaves who were most affected by the outbreak of sickness and disease after the Civil War and underscores the relationship between freedpeople’s ... More


Narrating Illness: Freedpeople’s Health Claims at Reconstruction’s End

Jim Downs

in Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199758722
eISBN:
9780190254438
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199758722.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: Civil War

This chapter focuses on how the Reconstruction period inspired freedpeople to make claims about their health matters to the state, and how the expansion of the pension system allowed black veterans ... More


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